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Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management, Volume 61

JonathanT. Phinney (Editor), Ove Hoegh-Guldberg (Editor), Joanie Kleypas (Editor), William Skirving (Editor), Al Strong (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-87590-359-0
244 pages
January 2006, American Geophysical Union
Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management, Volume 61 (0875903592) cover image

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Volume 61.

The effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and related climate change on shallow coral reefs are gaining considerable attention for scientific and economic reasons worldwide. Although increased scientific research has improved our understanding of the response of coral reefs to climate change, we still lack key information that can help guide reef management. Research and monitoring of coral reef ecosystems over the past few decades have documented two major threats related to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2: (1) increased sea surface temperatures and (2) increased seawater acidity (lower pH). Higher atmospheric CO2 levels have resulted in rising sea surface temperatures and proven to be an acute threat to corals and other reef-dwelling organisms. Short periods (days) of elevated sea surface temperatures by as little as 1–2°C above the normal maximum temperature has led to more frequent and more widespread episodes of coral bleaching-the expulsion of symbiotic algae. A more chronic consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 is the lowering of pH of surface waters, which affects the rate at which corals and other reef organisms secrete and build their calcium carbonate skeletons. Average pH of the surface ocean has already decreased by an estimated 0.1 unit since preindustrial times, and will continue to decline in concert with rising atmospheric CO2. These climate-related Stressors combined with other direct anthropogenic assaults, such as overfishing and pollution, weaken reef organisms and increase their susceptibility to disease.

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Preface
Jonathan T. Phinney, Ore Hoegh-Guldberg, Joanie Kleypas, William Skitying and Allan E. Strong  vii

Corals and Climate Change: An Introduction
John E. N. Veron and Jonathan T. Phinney  1

Tropical Coastal Ecosystemsa nd Climate Change
Prediction: Global and Local Risks
Terry Done and Roger Jones  5

Coral Reef Records of Past Climatic Change
C. Mark Eakin and Andrea G. Grottoli  33

The Cell Physiology of Coral Bleaching
Sophie G. Dove and Ore Hoegh-Guldberg  55

Coral Reefs and Changing Seawater Carbonate Chemistry
Joan A. Kleypas and Chris Langdon  73

Analyzing the Relationship Between Ocean Temperature
Anomalies and Coral Disease Outbreaks at Broad Spatial Scales
Elizabeth R. Selig, C. Drew Hatyell, John F. Bruno, Bette L .Willis, Cathie A. Page, Kenneth S. Case,
and Hugh Sweatman  111

A Coral Population Response (CPR) Model for Thermal Stress
R. van Woesik and S. Koksal  129

The Hydrodynamics of a Bleaching Event: Implications for
Management and Monitoring
William Skitying, Mat Heron, and Scott Heron  145

Identifying Coral Bleaching Remotely via Coral Reef Watch-
Improved Integration and Implications for Changing Climate
A. E. Strong, E. Arzayus, W. Skirving, and S. E Heton  163

Management Response to a Bleaching Event
David Obura, Billy Causey, and Julie Church  181

Marine Protected Area Planning in a Changing Climate
Rodney V. Salm, Terry Done, and Elizabeth McLeod  207

Adapting Coral Reef Management in the Face of Climate Change
Paul Marshall and Heidi Schuttenberg 223

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