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Solar Variability and Its Effect on Climate, Volume 141

Judit M. Pap (Editor), Peter Fox (Editor), Claus Frohlich (Contributing Editor), Hugh S. Hudson (Contributing Editor), Jeffrey Kuhn (Contributing Editor), John McCormack (Contributing Editor), Gerald R. North (Contributing Editor), William Sprigg (Contributing Editor), S. T. Wu (Contributing Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-87590-406-1
378 pages
January 2004, American Geophysical Union
Solar Variability and Its Effect on Climate, Volume 141 (0875904068) cover image

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 141.

This monograph presents a state-of-the-art description of the most recent results on solar variability and its possible influence on the Earth's climate and atmosphere. Our primary goal in doing so is to review solar energy flux variations (both electromagnetic and particle) and understand their relations to solar magnetic field changes and global effects, their impact on different atmospheric layers, and—as a collaboration of scientists working on solar-terrestrial physics—to note unresolved questions on an important interdisciplinary area.

One of the highest-level questions facing science today is whether the Earth's atmosphere and climate system changes in a way that we can understand and predict. The Earth's climate is the result of a complex and incompletely understood system of external inputs and interacting parts. Climate change can occur on various time scales as a consequence of natural variability—including solar variability—or anthropogenic causes, or both. The Sun's variability in the form of sunspots and related magnetic activity has been the subject of careful study ever since the earliest telescopic observations. High precision photometric observations of solar-type stars clearly show that year-to-year brightness variations connected with magnetic activity are a widespread phenomenon among such stars. As our nearest star, the Sun is the only star where we can observe and identify a variety of structures and processes which lead to variations in the solar energy output, in both radiative and particle fluxes. Studying event tiny changes in solar energy flux variations may teach us about internal processes taking place in the Sun's convective zone and below.

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Preface
Judit M. Pap, Peter Fox! Claus Frohlich, Hugh S. Hudson, Jeffrey Kuhn, John McCormack, Gerald North, William Sprigg, and S. I Wu vii

Section 1. Fundamentals  1

Section 1. Fundamentals of the Solar Interior and Atmosphere
Jeffrey R. Kuhn and John McCormack 3

Long-Term Solar Variability: Evolutionary Time Scales
Richard R. Radick  5

Solar Variability Caused by Structural Changes of the Convection Zone
S. Sofia and L. H. Li 15

Theoretical Models of Solar Magnetic Variability
Manfred Schussler and Dieter Schmitt 33

Global Magnetic-Field Reversal in the Corona
Boon Chye Low and Mei Zhang 51

Fundamentals of the Earth1s Atmosphere and Climate
Joanna D. Haigh 65

Section 2. Solar Energy Flux Variations 83

Section 2. Solar Energy Flux Variations
Hugh S. Hudson 85

Mechanisms of Solar Irradiance Variations
J. R. Kuhn and J. D. Armstrong 87

Solar Irradiance Variability
Claus Frohlich 97

Measurement of the Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance
Gary Rottman, Linton Floyd, and Rodney Viereck 111

Solar Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Variations
Tom Woods, Loren W Acton, Scott Bailey, Frank Eparvier, Howard Garcia, Darrell judge, judith Lean, John I Mariska, Don McMullin, Gerhard Schmidtke, Stanley C. Solomon, W Kent Tobiska, Harry R. Warren, and Rodney Viereck 127

Solar Activity and Irradiance Variations
Peter Fox  141

Solar Irradiance Reference Spectra
Gerard Thuillier, Linton Floyd, Thomas N. Woods, Richard Cebula, Ernest Hilsenrath, Michel Herse, and Dietrich Labs  171

Solar Energetic Particle Variations
David Lario and George M. Simnett  195

Section 3. Solar Variability and Climate 217

Section 3. Solar Variability and Climate
John P. McCormack and Gerald R. North 21 9

Long-Term Solar Variability and Climate Change Based on Radionuclide Data From Ice Cores
Raiumund Muscheler, jiirg Beer, and Peter W Kubik 221

Solar and Climatic Implications of the Centennial and Millennial Periodicities
in Atmospheric L114C Variations
Paul E. Damon and Alexei N. Peristykh 237

Detecting the ll-year Solar Cycle in the Surface Temperature Field
G. R. North, Q. WU, and M. J. Stevens 251

Has the Sun Changed Climate? Modeling the Effect of Solar Variability on Climate
Michael E. Schlesinger and Natalia G. Andronova 261

Effects of Solar UV Variability on the Stratosphere
Lon L. Hood 283

The Effect of Solar Proton Events on Ozone and Other Constituents
Charles H. Jackman and Richard D. McPeters 305

Atmospheric Ionization and Clouds as Links Between Solar Activity and Climate
Brian A. Tinsley and Fangqun Yu 321

Impact of Solar EUV, XUV, and X-Ray Variations on Earth1s Atmosphere
Tim Fuller-Rowell, Stan Solomon, Ray Roble, and Rodney Viereck 341

Section 4. Science Requirements and Required Future Measurements 355

Science Requirements and Required Future Measurements
William Sprigg and Judit M. Pap 357

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