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Sea Salt Aerosol Production: Mechanisms, Methods, Measurements, and Models - A Critical Review, Volume 152

ISBN: 978-0-87590-417-7
413 pages
January 2004, American Geophysical Union
Sea Salt Aerosol Production: Mechanisms, Methods, Measurements, and Models - A Critical Review, Volume 152 (0875904173) cover image
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 152.

Sea salt aerosol (SSA) exerts a major influence over a broad reach of geophysics. It is important to the physics and chemistry of the marine atmosphere and to marine geochemistry and biogeochemistry generally. It affects visibility, remote sensing, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality. Sea salt aerosol particles interact with other atmospheric gaseous and aerosol constituents by acting as sinks for condensable gases and suppressing new particle formation, thus influencing the size distribution of these other aerosols and more broadly influencing the geochemical cycles of substances with which they interact. As the key aerosol constituent over much of Earth's surface at present, and all the more so in pre-industrial times, SSA is central to description of Earth's aerosol burden.
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Preface  ix

1. Introduction 1

1.1. Sea Salt Aerosol (SSA) and its Importance  1

1.2. Methods of Determining Size-Dependent SSA Production Fluxes  5

1.3. Scope of This Work  5

2. Fundamentals  9

2.1. Description of SSA Particle Sizes, Concentrations, and Fluxes 9

2.2. Major SSA Production Mechanisms 35

2.3. Factors Affecting SSA Production, Entrainment, Transport, and Removal  37

2.4. Structure of the Atmosphere Over the Ocean  44

2.5. Chemical and Physical Properties of Seawater and SSA Particles 47

2.6. Kinematics and Dynamics of SSA Particles 63

2.7. Mechanisms for Removal of SSA Particles From the Atmosphere 71

2.8. Transport of SSA in the Marine Boundary Layer  77

2.9. Vertical Distribution of SSA Particles 82

3. Methods of Determining Size-Dependent Sea Salt Aerosol Production Fluxes 101

3.1 Steady State Dry Deposition Method  101

3.2. Whitecap Method 105

3.3. Concentration Buildup Method  107

3.4. Bubble Method  109

3.5. Micrometeorological Methods 110

3.6. Along-Wind Flux Method  113

3.7. Direct Observation Method  11 6

3.8. Vertical Impaction Method  11 6

3.9. Statistical Wet Deposition Method  117

3.10. Summary of Methods for Flux Determination 117

4. Measurements and Models of Quantities Required to Evaluate Sea Salt Aerosol Production Fluxes  119

4.1. Sea Salt Aerosol Concentrations  120

4.2 Near Surface Field Measurements Pertinent to SSA Production 183

4.3. Laboratory Studies Pertinent to SSA Production  187

4.4. Bubbles in the Oceans  235

4.5. Oceanic Whitecaps  256

4.6. Dry Deposition  2 73

4.7. Minor SSA Production Mechanisms  289

5. Sea Salt Aerosol Production Fluxes: Estimates and Critical Analysis 299

5.1. General Considerations 299

5.2. Steady State Dry Deposition Method  303

5.3. Whitecap Method 314

5.4. Concentration Buildup Method  320

5.5. Bubble Method  322

5.6. Micrometeorological Methods 329

5.7. Along-Wind Flux Method  332

5.8. Direct Observation Method 337

5.9. Vertical Impaction Method  338

5.10. Statistical Wet Deposition Method 338

5.11. Comparison of Flux Estimates 339

6. Applications and Implications 345

6.1. The Climate Connection  345

6.2. Representation of SSA Production Flux in Chemical Transport Models  346

6.3. Status and Prospect 349

Principal Symbols  353

List of Figures  357

List of Tables  358

References  359

Index  409

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