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Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting, Volume 170

Rachel Abercrombie (Editor), Art McGarr (Editor), Hiroo Kanamori (Editor), Giulio Di Toro (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-87590-435-1
327 pages
January 2006, American Geophysical Union
Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting, Volume 170 (0875904351) cover image

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 170.

Earthquakes, from the smallest to the largest, release elastic strain energy. Where does this energy go? How much is radiated and how much is expended in other source processes, such as overcoming fault friction? Do large and small earthquakes differ with regard to rupture physics? This book examines such questions and current debates from five vantage points:

  • How we measure earthquake energy
  • Effects of earthquake size and tectonic setting
  • Insights from numerical simulations
  • Geological fault zone research
  • The efficiency of the "earthquake machine" in terms of fault rupture, friction, and seismic phenomena

Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting is the first book to present a systematic approach to understanding the energy changes associated with earthquakes. Solid Earth scientists, researchers and students-especially those who work in seismology, tectonophysics, rock mechanics and geodesy-will find this book an essential resource, now and into the future.

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Preface
Rachel E. Abercrombie, Art McGarr, Giulio Di Toro, and Hiroo Kanamori vii

Introduction
Rachel E. Abercrombie, Art McGarr, Hiroo Kanamori, and Giulio Di Toro 1

Energy Partitioning During an Earthquake
Hiroo Kanamori and Luis Rivera 3

Section I: The Measure of Radiated Energy and its Behavior

A Brief Review of Techniques Used to Estimate Radiated Seismic Energy
Anupama Venkataraman, John Boatwright, and Gregory C. Beroza 15

The Scaling of Seismic Energy With Moment: Simple Models Compared With Observations
William R. Walter, Kevin Mayeda, Rengin Gok, and Abraham Hofstetter 25

An Overview of the Global Variability in Radiated Energy and Apparent Stress
George L. Choy, Art McGarr, Stephen H. Kirby, and John Boatwright 43

The Radiated Energy of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake
Hiroo Kanamori 59

Uncertainties in Earthquake Source Spectrum Estimation Using Empirical Green Functions
Germán A. Prieto, Robert L. Parker, Frank L. Vernon, Peter M. Shearer, and David J. Thomson 69

Source Parameters Determined From Microearthquakes in an Underground Ore Mine
Volker Oye, Michael Roth, and Hilmar Bungum 75

Source Scaling Relationships of Microearthquakes at Parkfield, CA, Determined Using
the SAFOD Pilot Hole Seismic Array
Kazutoshi Imanishi and William L. Ellsworth 81

Effects of Methods of Attenuation Correction on Source Parameter Determination
Eleanor Sonley and Rachel E. Abercrombie 91

Section II: The View From the Lab

Inferring Earthquake Source Properties From Laboratory Observations and the Scope of Lab
Contributions to Source Physics
N. M. Beeler 99

Relating High-Velocity Rock-Friction Experiments to Coseismic Slip in the Presence of Melts
Giulio Di Toro, Takehiro Hirose, Stefan Nielsen, and Toshihiko Shimamoto 121

Shear Resistance Reduction due to Vibration in Simulated Fault Gouge
Takane Hori, Hide Sakaguchi, Naoto Yoshioka, and Yoshiyuki Kaneda 135

Quantitative Characterization of Permeability Reduction Associated with Compactive
Cataclastic Flow
Wenlu Zhu 143

Section III: The View From the Field

The Habitat of Fault-Generated Pseudotachylyte: Presence vs. Absence of Friction-Melt
Richard H. Sibson and Virginia G. Toy 153

Pseudotachylyte-Bearing Strike-Slip Faults in Mylonitic Host Rocks,
Fort Foster Brittle Zone, Kittery, Maine
Mark T. Swanson 167

Energentics of Chemical Alteration In Fault Zones and its Relationship to the Seismic Cycle
Joseph R. Jacobs, James P. Evans, and Peter T. Kolesar 181

How Thick is a Fault? Fault Displacement-Thickness Scaling Revisited
Zoe K. Shipton, Aisling M. Soden, James D. Kirkpatrick, Aileen M. Bright, and Rebecca J. Lunn 193

Episodic Fluid Flow in an Aseismic Overpressured Growth Fault, Northern Gulf of Mexico
Steven Losh and Matthew Haney 199

Mechanics and Interpretations of Fault Slip
Stephen J. Martel and Christin Shacat 207

The Missing Sinks: Slip Localization in Faults, Damage Zones, and the Seismic Energy Budget
Zoe K. Shipton, James P. Evans, Rachel E. Abercrombie, and Emily E. Brodsky 217

Section IV: Earthquakes in Theory

Seismic Radiation From Simple Models of Earthquakes
R. Madariaga, J.-P. Ampuero, and M. Adda-Bedia 223

On the Mechanical Work Absorbed on Faults During Earthquake Ruptures
Massimo Cocco, Paul Spudich, and Elisa Tinti 237

Properties of Dynamic Earthquake Ruptures With Heterogeneous Stress Drop
J.-P. Ampuero, J. Ripperger, and P. M. Mai 255

The Effects of Flash-Weakening and Damage on theEvolution of Fault Strength and Temperature
A. W. Rempel 263

Impact of Friction and Scale-Dependent Initial Stress on Radiated Energy-Moment Scaling
Bruce E. Shaw 271

On Scaling of Fracture Energy and Stress Drop in Dynamic Rupture Models:
Consequences for Near-Source Ground-Motions
P.M. Mai, P. Somerville, A. Pitarka, L. Dalguer, S. Song, G. Beroza, H. Miyake, and K. Irikura 283

Mechanics of Sliding in Rate/State Friction Experiments
J. B. Walsh 295

Section V: How Efficient is the “Earthquake Machine” and how Strong are its Working Parts?

The Strength of the San Andreas Fault: A Critical Analysis
Christopher H. Scholz 301

What do Faults Feel? Observational Constraints on the Stresses Acting on Seismogenic Faults
John Townend 313

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