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Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts -- Past and Future Changes of Meridional Overturning, Volume 173

ISBN: 978-0-87590-438-2
392 pages
January 2007, American Geophysical Union
Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts -- Past and Future Changes of Meridional Overturning, Volume 173 (0875904386) cover image

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 173.

The ocean's meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a key factor in climate change. The Atlantic MOC, in particular, is believed to play an active role in the regional and global climate variability. It is associated with the recent debate on rapid climate change, the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO), global warming, and Atlantic hurricanes.

This is the first book to deal with all aspects of the ocean's large-scale meridional overturning circulation, and is a coherent presentation, from a mechanistic point of view, of our current understanding of paleo, present-day, and future variability and change. It presents the current state of the science by bringing together the world's leading experts in physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, marine geology, geochemistry, paleoceanography, and climate modeling. A mix of overview and research papers makes this volume suitable not only for experts in the field, but also for students and anyone interested in climate change and the oceans.

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Preface
Andreas Schmittner, John C. H. Chiang, and Sidney R. Hemming vii

Section 1. Introduction

Introduction: The Ocean's Meridional Overturning Circulation
Andreas Schmittner, John C. H. Chiang, and Sidney R. Hemming 1

Discovery and Quantification of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: The Importance of 25°N
Hannah R. Longworth and Harry L. Bryden 5

Section 2. Theory and Perspectives

A Simple Theory of the Pycnocline and Overturning Revisited
Anand Gnanadesikan, Agatha M. de Boer, and Bryan K. Mignone 19

Buoyancy-Driven Flow and Nature of Vertical Mixing in a Zonally Averaged Model
Olivier Marchal, Charles Jackson, Johan Nilsson, André Paul, and Thomas F. Stocker 33

The Past and Future Ocean Circulation From a Contemporary Perspective
Carl Wunsch 53

Section 3. Current State and Trend

Present-Day Manifestation of the Nordic Seas Overflows
Detlef Quadfasel and Rolf Käse 75

Circulation and Deep Water Export of the Subpolar North Atlantic During the 1990's
Friedrich A. Schott and Peter Brandt 91

Strength and Variability of the Deep Limb of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation From Chlorofluorocarbon Inventories
W. M. Smethie, Jr., Deborah A. LeBel, Rana A. Fine, Monika Rhein, and Dagmar Kieke 119

Section 4. Decadal to Centennial Variability

Decadal to Centennial Variability of the Atlantic From Observations and Models
Thomas L. Delworth, Rong Zhang, and Michael E. Mann 131

Decadal to Multidecadal Variability of the Atlantic MOC: Mechanisms and Predictability
M. Latif, C. W. Böning, J. Willebrand, A. Biastoch, F. Alvarez-Garcia, N. Keenlyside, and H. Pohlmann 149

Section 5. Past States and Millennial Variability

Is the Frequency of Abrupt Climate Change Modulated by the Orbital Insolation?
J. A. Rial and M. Yang 167

14C Reservoir Ages Show Deglacial Changes in Ocean Currents and Carbon Cycle
Michael Sarnthein, Pieter M. Grootes, James P. Kennett, and Marie-Josee Nadeau 175

Phasing of Millennial Climate Events and Northeast Atlantic Deep-Water Temperature Change Since 50 ka BP
L. C. Skinner, H. Elderfield, and M. Hall 197

Mechanisms for an ~7-kyr Climate and Sea-Level Oscillation During Marine Isotope Stage 3
Peter U. Clark, Steven W. Hostetler, Nicklas G. Pisias, Andreas Schmittner, and Katrin J. Meissner 209

North Atlantic Intermediate Depth Variability During the Younger Dryas: Evidence From Benthic Foraminiferal Mg/Ca and the GFDL R30 Coupled Climate Model
Rosemarie E. Came, William B. Curry, Delia W. Oppo, Anthony J. Broccoli, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Jean Lynch-Stieglitz 247

Section 6. Impact on Climate, Ecosystems, and Biogeochemical Cycles

Musings About the Connection Between Thermohaline Circulation and Climate
Wallace S. Broecker 265

Millennial-Scale Interhemispheric Asymmetry of Low-Latitude Precipation: Speleothem Evidence and Possible High-Latitude Forcing
Xianfeng Wang, R. Lawrence Edwards, Augusto S. Auler, Hai Cheng, and Emi Ito 279

Adjustment of the Global Climate to an Abrupt Slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
Wei Cheng, Cecilia M. Bitz, and John C.H. Chiang 295

Impact of the Ocean's Overturning Circulation on Atmospheric CO2
Andreas Schmittner, Edward J. Brook, and Jinho Ahn 315

Antarctic Stratification, Atmospheric Water Vapor, and Heinrich Events: A Hypothesis for Late Pleistocene Deglaciations
Daniel M. Sigman, Agatha M. de Boer, and Gerald H. Haug 335

Section 7. Future Projections

Response of the Meridional Overturning Circulation During Differing Pathways Toward Greenhouse Gas Stabilization
F. O. Bryan, N. Nakashiki, Y. Yoshida, and K. Maruyama 351

Projected Strengthening of the Southern Ocean Winds: Some Implications for the Deep Ocean Circulation
Oleg A. Saenko 365

Effect of the Greenland Ice-Sheet Melting on the Response and Stability of the AMOC in the Next Centuries
Didier Swingedouw and Pascale Braconnot 383

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