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Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle, Volume 183

ISBN: 978-0-87590-448-1
359 pages
January 2009, American Geophysical Union
Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle, Volume 183 (0875904483) cover image
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 183.

For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas:
  • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks
  • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage
  • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage
  • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage
  • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future.

The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

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Preface
Brian McPherson and Eric T. Sundquist vii

An Introduction to Global Carbon Cycle Management
Eric T. Sundquist, Katherine V. Ackerman, Lauren Parker, and Deborah Huntzinger 1

Section 1: Monitoring the Global Carbon Cycle: A Tribute to David Keeling 25

The Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Record: Lessons for Long-Term Earth Observations
Eric T. Sundquist and Ralph F. Keeling 27

The Influence of David Keeling on Oceanic CO2 Measurements
Peter G. Brewer 37

Next-Generation Terrestrial Carbon Monitoring
Steven W. Running, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, John R. G. Townshend, and Dennis D. Baldocchi 49

Section 2: Assessment of Local and Regional Carbon Sources and Sinks 71

Terrestrial Biological Sequestration: Science for Enhancement and Implementation
Wilfred M. Post, James E. Amonette, Richard Birdsey, Charles T. Garten Jr., R. Cesar Izaurralde, Philip M. Jardine, Julie Jastrow, Rattan Lal, Gregg Marland, Bruce A. McCarl, Allison M. Thomson, Tristram O. West, Stan D. Wullschleger, and F. Blaine Metting 73

Satellite Data Analysis and Ecosystem Modeling for Carbon Sequestration Assessments in the Western United States
Christopher Potter, Matthew Fladeland, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Seth Hiatt, and Peggy Gross 89

An Inventory of Carbon Storage in Forest Soil and Down Woody Material of the United States
Charles H. Perry, Christopher W. Woodall, Michael C. Amacher, and Katherine P. O'Neill 101

Quantifying the Spatial Details of Carbon Sequestration Potential and Performance
Shuguang Liu 117

Soil Inorganic Carbon Sequestration as a Result of Cultivation in the Mollisols
Elena Mikhailova, Christopher Post, Larry Cihacek, and Michael Ulmer 129

Natural Analogs of Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Some General Implications for Engineered Sequestration
Julianna E. Fessenden, Philip H. Stauffer, and Hari S. Viswanathan 135

Hydrogeochemical Characterization of Leaking, Carbon Dioxide-Charged Fault Zones in East-Central Utah, With Implications for Geological Carbon Storage
Jason E. Heath, Thomas E. Lachmar, James P. Evans, Peter T. Kolesar, and Anthony P. Williams 147

Section 3: Assessing Risks, Benefits, and Impacts of Sequestration 159

Is There an Optimal Timing for Sequestration to Stabilize Future Climate?
Vincent Gitz, Philippe Ambrosi, Bertrand Magné, and Philippe Ciais 161

Present and Future Changes in Seawater Chemistry due to Ocean Acidification
Richard A. Feely, James Orr, Victoria J. Fabry, Joan A. Kleypas, Christopher L. Sabine, and Christopher Langdon 175

Erosion of Soil Organic Carbon: Implications for Carbon Sequestration
Kristof Van Oost, Hendrick Van Hemelryck, and Jennifer W. Harden 189

Assessing the Potential for CO2 Leakage, Particularly Through Wells, From Geological Storage Sites
Stefan Bachu and Michael A. Celia 203

Scoping Calculations on Leakage of CO2 in Geologic Storage: The Impact of Overburden Permeability, Phase Trapping, and Dissolution
Christine Doughty and Larry R. Myer 217

Geochemical Impacts of Sequestering Carbon Dioxide in Brine Formations
John B. Kaszuba and David R. Janecky 239

Quantification of CO2 Trapping and Storage Capacity in the Subsurface: Uncertainty due to Solubility Models
Biniam Zerai, Beverly Z. Saylor, and Douglas E. Allen 249

Quantification of CO2 Flow and Transport in the Subsurface: Uncertainty due to Equations of State Algorithms
Weon Shik Han and Brian J. McPherson 261

Section 4: Evaluation of Carbon Management Requirements 279

Verification and Accreditation Schemes for Climate Change Activities: A Review of Requirements for Verification of Greenhouse Gas Reductions and Accreditation of Verifiers—Implications for Long-Term Carbon Sequestration
Trygve Roed-Larsen and Todd Flach 281

Sociopolitical Drivers in the Development of Deliberate Carbon Storage
Jennie C. Stephens 293

Considerations for Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting for Geologic Storage of CO2
Mike Monea, Ray Knudsen, Kyle Worth, Rick Chalaturnyk, Don White, Malcolm Wilson, Sean Plasynski, Howard G. McIlvried, and Rameshwar D. Srivastava 303

Integrating Terrestrial Sequestration Into a Greenhouse Gas Management Plan
Joel R. Brown and Neil Sampson 317

A Conceptual Framework for Management of Carbon Sequestration Data and Methods
Robert B. Cook, Wilfred M. Post, Leslie A. Hook, and Raymond A. McCord 325

Looking Ahead: Research Agenda for the Study of Carbon Sequestration
Brian J. McPherson 335

Index 359

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