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Biogeochemistry of the Ross Sea

ISBN: 978-0-87590-972-1
358 pages
January 2003, American Geophysical Union
Biogeochemistry of the Ross Sea (0875909728) cover image

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 78.

The seas surrounding Antarctica are the least-studied on Earth, yet they figure prominently in both the global climate system and the biogeochemical cycling of such key elements as C, N, Si, and P. The Southern Ocean affects climate directly through the sinking of surface waters via cooling and changes in salt content. Such water near Antarctica moves slowly northward through all major ocean basins. In doing so, it retains a long-lived signature of the physical and biological processes that occurred in Antarctic surface waters lasting many hundreds of years through all phases: sinking, northward flow, and mixing or upwelling into the sunlit ocean thousands of kilometers away. By this process, CO2 that dissolves into the Antarctic seas may be stored in the deep ocean for centuries. In fact, the Southern Ocean is one of the most important regions on Earth for the uptake and subsurface transport of fossil fuel CO2.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Giacomo R. DiTullio and Robert B. Dunbar   ix

Biogeochemistry of the Ross Sea—An Introduction
Giacomo R. DiTullio and Robert B. Dunbar   1

Section 1: Physics and Hydrography of the Ross Sea

The Ross Sea Circulation During the 1990s
Michael L. Van Woert, Eric S. Johnson, Leonardo Langone, Denise L. Worthen, Andy Monaghan,
David H Bromwich, Roberto Meloni, and Robert B. Dunbar   5

Section 2: Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production in the Ross Sea

Algal Pigment Ratios in the Ross Sea: Implications for CHEMTAX Analysis of Southern Ocean Data
Giacomo R. DiTullio, Mark E. Geesey, Amy R. Leventer, and Michael R Lizotte   35

The Ross Sea Polynya Project: Diatom- and Phaeocystis-dommated Phytoplankton Assemblages in the
Ross Sea, Antarctica, 1994 and 1995
David L. Garrison, Angela Gibson, Holly Kunze, Marcia M. Gowing, Chrystal L. Vickers, Sylvie Mathot, and Ross C. Bayre   53

Evaluating Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation During Phaeocystis antarctica Blooms
Dale H. Robinson, Kevin R. Arrigo, Giacomo R. DiTullio, and Michael P. Lizotte   77

A Coupled Ocean-Ecosystem Model of the Ross Sea. Part 1: Interannual Variability of Primary Production and Phytoplankton Community Structure
Denise L. Worthen and Kevin R. Arrigo   93

The Influence of Sea Ice on Ross Sea Biogeochemical Processes
Michael P. Lizotte   107

Section 3: Dissolved Organic Matter and Microbial Dynamics in the Ross Sea

The Contribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen to the Biogeochemistry of the Ross Sea
Craig A. Carlson and Dennis A. Hansell   123

Seasonal Production and Bacterial Utilization of DOC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Hugh W Ducklow   143

Section 4: Nutrient Dynamics

Effects of Ammonium on Nitrate Utilization in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Implications for
f-ratio Estimates
William P. Cochlan and Deborah A. Bronk   159

Non-Redfield Production and Export of Marine Organic Matter: A Recurrent Part of the Annual Cycle in
the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Robert B. Dunbar, Kevin R. Arrigo, Michael Lutz, Giacomo R. DiTullio, Amy R. Leventer,
Michael P. Lizotte, Michael P. Van Woert, and Dale H. Robinson 179

Effects of Assemblage Composition on the Temporal Dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake
in the Ross Sea
Walker O. Smith, Jr. and Christina M. van Hilst 197

Flavodoxin as a Diagnostic Indicator of Chronic Iron Limitation in the Ross Sea and New Zealand Sector of the Southern Ocean
Jennifer M. Maucher and Giacomo R. DiTullio 209

Section 5: Particulate Fluxes in the Ross Sea

Rapid Sinking of Biogenic Material During the Late Austral Summer in the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Leonardo Langone, Robert B. Dunbar, David A. Mucciarone, Mariangela Ravaioli, Roberto Meloni,
and Charles A. Nittrouer 221

The Distribution of Particulate Organic Carbon and Its Dynamics in the Southern Ross Sea
Vernon L. Asper and Walker O. Smith, Jr. 235

Larger Microplankton in the Ross Sea: Abundance, Biomass and Flux in the Austral Summer
Marcia M. Gowing and David L. Garrison 243

Annual Sedimentation Pattern of Zooplankton Fecal Pellets in the Southern Ross Sea: What Food Webs and Processes Does the Record Imply?
Alessandra Accornero and Marcia M. Gowing 261

Section 6: Non-conservative Tracers and Biogenic Gases

Dimethylsulfide Dynamics in the Ross Sea During Austral Summer
Giacomo R. DiTullio, David R. Jones, and Mark E. Geesey 279

The Annual Cycle of Surface Water C02 and 02 in the Ross Sea: A Model for Gas Exchange on the Continental Shelves of Antarctica
Colm Sweeney 295

Section 7: Benthic-Pelagic Coupling in the Ross Sea

Benthic Carbon Cycling in the Ross Sea Polynya, Antarctica: Benthic Community Metabolism and Sediment Tracers
Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, Giacomo R. DiTullio, James P. Barry, and Lee W. Cooper 313

Oceanographic Versus Seafloor-Habitat Control of Benthic Megafaunal Communities in the S.W. Ross Sea, Antarctica
James P. Barry, Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, James Smith, and Robert B. Dunbar 327

Biogeochemistry of the Ross Sea—A Summary
Giacomo R. DiTullio and Robert B. Dunbar 355

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