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Magnetospheric Current Systems, Volume 118

Shin-ichi Ohtani (Editor), Ryoichi Fujii (Editor), Michael Hesse (Editor), Robert L. Lysak (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-87590-976-9
401 pages
January 2000, American Geophysical Union
Magnetospheric Current Systems, Volume 118 (0875909760) cover image
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 118.

The magnetosphere is an open system that interacts with the solar wind. In this system, solar wind energy continuously permeates different regions of the magnetosphere through electromagnetic processes, which we can well describe in terms of current systems. In fact, our ability to use various methods to study magnetospheric current systems has recently prompted significant progress in our understanding of the phenomenon. Unprecedented coverage of satellite and ground ]based observations has advanced global approaches to magnetospheric current systems, whereas advanced measurements of electromagnetic fields and particles have brought new insights about micro ]processes. Increased computer capabilities have enabled us to simulate the dynamics not only of the terrestrial magnetosphere but also the magnetospheres of other planets. Based on such developments, the present volume revisits outstanding issues about magnetospheric current systems.
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Dedication
Laurence J. Zanetti  ix

Preface
Shin-ichi Ohtani, Ryoichi Fujii, Michael Hesse, and Robert L. Lysak  xi

Frameworks for Describing Current Systems

TUTORIAL: Newton, Maxwell, and Magnetospheric Physics
E. N. Parker  1

Paradigm Transitionin Cosmic Plasma Physics, Magnetic Reconnection and the Generation of
Field-Aligned Current
Yan Song and Robert L. Lysak  11

FAST Observations of Electromagnetic  Stresses  Applied to the Polar Ionosphere
R. J. Strangeway, R. C. Elphic, W. J. Peria, and C. W. Carlson 21

Electric Current Approach to Magnetospheric Physics and the Distinction Between Current
Disruption and Magnetic Reconnection
A. T. Y. Lui  31

Modeling Magnetospheric  Current Systems

Global Geometry of Magnetospheric  Currents Inferred From MHD Simulations
G. L. Siscoe, N. U. Crooker, G. M. Erickson, B. U. O. Sonnerup, K. D. Siebert, D. R. Weimer,
W. W. White, and N. C. Maynard  41

Field-Aligned-Current  Systems in the Numerically Simulated Magnetosphere
T. Tanaka  53

Recent Progress in the Data-Based Modeling of Magnetospheric Currents
N. A. Tsyganenko 61

Field Line Mapping and Birkeland Currents
F. R. Toffoletto and T. W. Hill  71

Magnetotail Currents During the Growth Phase and Local Auroral Breakup
T. I. Pulkkinen, M. V. Kubyshkina, D. N. Baker, L. L. Cogger, S. Kokubun, T. Mukai, H. J. Singer,
J. A. Slavin, and L. Zelenyi  81

Magnetosphere-Ionosphere  Coupling
TUTORIAL: Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Interactions: A Tutorial Review
S. W. H. Cowley  91

TUTORIAL: Field-Aligned Currents in Geospace: Substance and Significance
Takesi lijima  107

TUTORIAL: Ionospheric Electrodynamics: A Tutorial
A. D. Richmond and J. P Thayer  131

The Role of Alfven Waves in the Formation of Auroral Parallel Electric Fields
Robert L. Lysak and Yan Song  147

A Three-Dimensional  Simulation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability
Kristi A. Keller, Robert L. Lysak, and Yan Song  157

The Role of Space-Time Dependent Ionospheric Conductivity in the Evolution of
Field Line Resonances: Relation to Auroral Arc
Manju Prakash and Robert Rankin  165

FAST O bservations of Upward A ccelerated E lectron Beams and the Downward Field-Aligned
Current Region
R. C. Elphic, J. Bonnell, R .J . Strangeway, C. W. Carlson, M. Temerin, J.P. McFadden, R. E. Ergun, and W. Peria  173

Characteristics of Field-Aligned Currents Near the Auroral Acceleration Region-FAST Observations
W. J. Peria, C. W. Carlson, R. E. Ergun, J. P. McFadden, J. Bonnell, R. C. Elphic, and R. J. Strangeway 181

Auroral Surge Currents and Electrodynamics  With FAST and VIS
S. A. Cummer, R. R. Vondrak, R. F. Pfaff, J. W. Gjerloev, C. W. Carlson, R. E. Ergun, W. J. Peria,
R. C. Elphic, R. J . Strangeway, J. B. Sigwarth, and L. A. Frank  191

A Synthetic View of the Magnetospheric-Ionospheric  Current System Associated With Substorms
Gang Lu  199

The Harang Discontinuity in Auroral Substorms
J. W. Gjerloev, E. Friis-Christensen, R. A. Hoffman, and S. A. Cummer  209

The Effect of the January 10, 1997, Pressure Pulse on the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere
Current System
E. Zesta, H. J. Singer, D. Lummerzheim, C. T. Russell, L. R. Lyons, and M. J. Brittnacher 217

Ionospheric Shear Flow Situations Observed by the MIRACLE Network, and the
Concept of Harang Discontinuity
0. Amm, P. Janhunen, H. J. Opgenoorth, T. I. Pulkkinen, and A. Viljanen  227

Statistical Characteristics of Field-Aligned Currents in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere
Francis K. Chun and Christopher T. Russell  237

Independencoy of the Dayside Field-Aligned Current System: A Restriction to Cusp Models
M. Yamauchi, R. Lundin, L . Eliasson, S. Ohtani, P -A. Lindqvist, and R. P. Lepping 245

Disappearance of Large-Scale Field-Aligned Current Systems: Implications for the
Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling
S. Ohtani, T. Higuchi, T. Sotirelis, and P.T . Newell  253

Storm-Time Energetic Particle Penetration Into the Inner Magnetospheres and the Electromotive Force
in the Subauroral Ion Drift Current Circuit
J. De Keyser  261

Magnetospheric Electrodynamics

Structured Currents Associated With Tail Bursty Flows During Turbulent Plasma Sheet Conditions
L. R. Lyons, T. Nagai, J. C. Samson, E. Zesta, T. Yamamoto, T. Mukai, A. Nishida, and S. Kokubun  267

Substorm Associated Tail Current Changes Inferred From Lobe Magnetic Field Observations
Christian Jacquey 275

The Current Disruption Myth
Joachim Birn and Michael Hesse  285

Near- and Mid-tail Current Flow During Substorms: Small-and Large-Scale Aspects of Current Disruption
Michael Hesse and Joachim Birn  295

Intrinsic Variability in the Quiet-Time Magnetotail
Vahe Peroomian, Maha Ashour-Abdalla, and Lev M . Zelenyi  305

Self-Consistent Model of 1D Current Sheet: The Role of Drift, Magnetization and Diamagnetic Currents
Helmi V. Malova, Mikhail I. Sitnov, Lev M. Zelenyi, and Surja Sharma  313

Pressure Anisotropy and By in the Magnetotail Current Sheet
Richard L. Kaufmann, Bryan M. Ball, W. R. Paterson, and L. A. Frank  323

Formation of the Storm-Time Ring Current and the Dst Field: Some Recent Topics
T. lyemori  331

Current Systems in Other Magnetospheres

TUTORIAL: Currents and Flows in Distant Magnetospheres
Margaret Galland Kivelson  339

Rotational Current Systems and the Offset lo Plasma Torus
Duane H. Pontius Jr.  353

MHD Simulations of Current Systems in Planetary Magnetospheres: Mercury and Saturn
Tamas I. Gombosi, Darren L. DeZeeuw, Clinton PT. Groth, Kenneth C. Hansen, Konstantin Kabin,
Kenneth G. Powell  363

Currents in Mercury's Magnetosphere
Karl-Heinz Glassmeier  371

New Analysis Techniques
A New Technique for the Mapping of Ionospheric Field-Aligned Currents From
Satellite Magnetometer Data
Daniel R. Weimer  381

Automatic Identification of Large-Scale Field-Aligned Current Structures and its Application
to Night-Side Current Systems
T. Higuchi and S. Ohtani  389

Symmetry B reaking a nd Nonlinear W ave-Wave I nteraction in Current Disruption: Possible
Evidence for a Phase Transition
Giuseppe Consolini and Anthony T. Y. Lui  395

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