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The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Volume 134

James W. Hurrell (Editor), Yochanan Kushnir (Editor), Geir Ottersen (Editor), Martin Visbeck (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-87590-994-3
279 pages
January 2003, American Geophysical Union
The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Volume 134 (0875909949) cover image
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 134.

Over the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the most prominent and recurrent pattern of atmospheric variability is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO refers to swings in the atmospheric sea level pressure difference between the Arctic and the subtropical Atlantic that are most noticeable during the boreal cold season (November-April) and are associated with changes in the mean wind speed and direction. Such changes alter the seasonal mean heat and moisture transport between the Atlantic and the neighboring continents, as well as the intensity and number of storms, their paths, and their weather. Significant changes in ocean surface temperature and heat content, ocean currents and their related heat transport, and sea ice cover in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions are also induced by changes in the NAO. Such climatic fluctuations affect agricultural harvests, water management, energy supply and demand, and fisheries yields. All these effects have led to many studies of the phenomenon; yet, despite this interest, unanswered questions remain regarding the climatic processes that govern NAO variability, how the phenomenon has varied in the past or will vary in the future, and whether it is at all predictable.
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Preface
James W. Hurrell, Yochanan Kushnir, Geir Ottersen, and Martin Visbeck   vii

An Overview of the North Atlantic Oscillation
James W. Hurrell, Yochanan Kushnir, Geir Ottersen, and Martin Visbeck   1

The History of Scientific Research on the North Atlantic Oscillation
David B. Stephenson, Heinz Wanner, Stefan Bronnimann, and Jurg Luterbacher   37

Pressure-Based Measures of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): A Comparison and an Assessment of Changes in the Strength of the NAO and in Its Influence on Surface Climate Parameters
Philip D. Jones, Timothy J. Osborn, and Keith R. Briffa   51

Multi-Proxy Reconstructions of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index: A Critical Review and a New Wei I-Verified Winter NAO Index Reconstruction Back to AD 1400
Edward R. Cook   63

Atmospheric Processes Governing the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode/North Atlantic Oscillation
David W. J . Thompson, Sukyoung Lee, and Mark P. Baldwin   81

The Ocean's Response to North Atlantic Oscillation Variability
Martin Visbeck, Eric P Chassignet, Ruth G. Curry, Thomas L. Del worth, Robert R. Dickson, and Gerd Krahmann   113

The Role of Atlantic Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling in Affecting North Atlantic Oscillation Variability
Arnaud Czaja, Andrew W. Robertson, and Thierry Huck   147

On the Predictability of North Atlantic Climate
Mark J. Rodwell   173

Climate Change and the North Atlantic Oscillation
Nathan P Gillett, Hans E Graf, and Tim J. Osborn   193

The Response of Marine Ecosystems to Climate Variability Associated With the North Atlantic Oscillation
Kenneth F. Drinkwater, Andrea Belgrano, Angel Borja, Alessandra Conversi, Martin Edwards, Charles H. Greene, Geir Ottersen, Andrew J. Pershing, and Henry Walker   211

The Response of Terrestrial Ecosystems to Climate Variability Associated With the North Atlantic Oscillation
Atle Mysterud, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Geir Ottersen, and Rolf Langvatn   235

The Response of Freshwater Ecosystems to Climate Variability Associated With the North Atlantic Oscillation
Dietmar Straile, David M. Livingstone, GesaA. Weyhenmeyer, and D. Glen George   263

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