Wiley
Wiley.com
Print this page Share
E-book

Principles and Case Studies of Simultaneous Design

ISBN: 978-1-118-00164-6
336 pages
February 2012
Principles and Case Studies of Simultaneous Design (1118001648) cover image
There are many comprehensive design books, but none of them provide a significant number of detailed economic design examples of typically complex industrial processes. Most of the current design books cover a wide variety of topics associated with process design. In addition to discussing flowsheet development and equipment design, these textbooks go into a lot of detail on engineering economics and other many peripheral subjects such as written and oral skills, ethics, "green" engineering and product design. This book presents general process design principles in a concise readable form that can be easily comprehended by students and engineers when developing effective flow sheet and control structures.

Ten detailed case studies presented illustrate an in-depth and quantitative way the application of these general principles. Detailed economic steady-state designs are developed that satisfy economic criterion such as minimize total annual cost of both capital and energy or return on incremental capital investment. Complete detailed flow sheets and Aspen Plus files are provided. Then conventional PI control structures are be developed and tested for their ability to maintain product quality during disturbances. Complete Aspen Dynamics files are be provided of the dynamic simulations.

See More
PREFACE xv

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Overview / 1

1.2 History / 3

1.3 Books / 4

1.4 Tools / 4

Reference Textbooks / 5

2 PRINCIPLES OF REACTOR DESIGN AND CONTROL 7

2.1 Background / 7

2.2 Principles Derived from Chemistry / 8

2.2.1 Heat of Reaction / 8

2.2.2 Reversible and Irreversible Reactions / 9

2.2.3 Multiple Reactions / 10

2.3 Principles Derived from Phase of Reaction / 11

2.4 Determining Kinetic Parameters / 12

2.4.1 Thermodynamic Constraints / 12

2.4.2 Kinetic Parameters from Plant Data / 13

2.5 Principles of Reactor Heat Exchange / 13

2.5.1 Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors / 13

2.5.2 Tubular Reactors / 14

2.5.3 Feed-Effluent Heat Exchangers / 16

2.6 Heuristic Design of Reactor/Separation Processes / 17

2.6.1 Introduction / 17

2.6.2 Process Studied / 18

2.6.3 Economic Optimization / 21

2.6.4 Other Cases / 22

2.6.5 Real Example / 27

2.7 Conclusion / 28

References / 29

3 PRINCIPLES OF DISTILLATION DESIGN AND CONTROL 31

3.1 Principles of Economic Distillation Design / 32

3.1.1 Operating Pressure / 32

3.1.2 Heuristic Optimization / 33

3.1.3 Rigorous Optimization / 33

3.1.4 Feed Preheating and Intermediate Reboilers and Condensers / 34

3.1.5 Heat Integration / 34

3.2 Principles of Distillation Control / 35

3.2.1 Single-End Control / 36

3.2.2 Dual-End Control / 38

3.2.3 Alternative Control Structures / 38

3.3 Conclusion / 39

References / 39

4 PRINCIPLES OF PLANTWIDE CONTROL 41

4.1 History / 42

4.2 Effects of Recycle / 42

4.2.1 Time Constants of Integrated Plant with Recycle / 42

4.2.2 Recycle Snowball Effect / 43

4.3 Management of Fresh Feed Streams / 45

4.3.1 Fundamentals / 45

4.3.2 Process with Two Recycles and Two Fresh Feeds / 46

4.4 Conclusion / 52

5 ECONOMIC BASIS 53

5.1 Level of Accuracy / 53

5.2 Sizing Equipment / 54

5.2.1 Vessels / 54

5.2.2 Heat Exchangers / 55

5.2.3 Compressors / 56

5.2.4 Pumps, Valves, and Piping / 56

5.3 Equipment Capital Cost / 56

5.3.1 Vessels / 56

5.3.2 Heat Exchangers / 56

5.3.3 Compressors / 57

5.4 Energy Costs / 57

5.5 Chemical Costs / 57

References / 57

6 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF THE ACETONE PROCESS VIA DEHYDROGENATION OF ISOPROPANOL 59

6.1 Process Description / 60

6.1.1 Reaction Kinetics / 61

6.1.2 Phase Equilibrium / 62

6.2 Turton Flowsheet / 62

6.2.1 Vaporizer / 63

6.2.2 Reactor / 64

6.2.3 Heat Exchangers, Flash Tank, and Absorber / 64

6.2.4 Acetone Column C1 / 66

6.2.5 Water Column C2 / 66

6.3 Revised Flowsheet / 66

6.3.1 Effect of Absorber Pressure / 66

6.3.2 Effect of Water Solvent and Absorber Stages / 68

6.3.3 Effect of Reactor Size / 68

6.3.4 Optimum Distillation Design / 69

6.4 Economic Comparison / 69

6.5 Plantwide Control / 71

6.5.1 Control Structure / 71

6.5.2 Column Control Structure Selection / 75

6.5.3 Dynamic Performance Results / 76

6.6 Conclusion / 81

References / 81

7 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF AN AUTO-REFRIGERATED ALKYLATION PROCESS 83

7.1 Introduction / 84

7.2 Process Description / 84

7.2.1 Reaction Kinetics / 85

7.2.2 Phase Equilibrium / 85

7.2.3 Flowsheet / 86

7.2.4 Design Optimization Variables / 88

7.3 Design of Distillation Columns / 89

7.3.1 Depropanizer / 89

7.3.2 Deisobutanizer / 89

7.4 Economic Optimization of Entire Process / 91

7.4.1 Flowsheet Convergence / 91

7.4.2 Yield / 91

7.4.3 Effect of Reactor Size / 91

7.4.4 Optimum Economic Design / 93

7.5 Alternative Flowsheet / 94

7.6 Plantwide Control / 96

7.6.1 Control Structure / 96

7.6.2 Controller Tuning / 100

7.6.3 Dynamic Performance / 101

7.7 Conclusion / 103

References / 105

8 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF THE BUTYL ACETATE PROCESS 107

8.1 Introduction / 108

8.2 Chemical Kinetics and Phase Equilibrium / 108

8.2.1 Chemical Kinetics and

Chemical Equilibrium / 108

8.2.2 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium / 110

8.3 Process Flowsheet / 112

8.3.1 Reactor / 112

8.3.2 Column C1 / 113

8.3.3 Column C2 / 113

8.3.4 Column C3 / 113

8.3.5 Flowsheet Convergence / 115

8.4 Economic Optimum Design / 117

8.4.1 Reactor Size and Temperature / 117

8.4.2 Butanol Recycle and Composition / 118

8.4.3 Distillation Column Design / 119

8.4.4 System Economics / 120

8.5 Plantwide Control / 121

8.5.1 Column C1 / 121

8.5.2 Column C2 / 122

8.5.3 Column C3 / 122

8.5.4 Plantwide Control Structure / 123

8.5.5 Dynamic Performance / 124

8.6 Conclusion / 133

References / 133

9 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF THE CUMENE PROCESS 135

9.1 Introduction / 136

9.2 Process Studied / 136

9.2.1 Reaction Kinetics / 136

9.2.2 Phase Equilibrium / 137

9.2.3 Flowsheet / 137

9.3 Economic Optimization / 140

9.3.1 Increasing Propylene Conversion / 140

9.3.2 Effects of Design Optimization Variables / 141

9.3.3 Economic Basis / 142

9.3.4 Economic Optimization Results / 143

9.4 Plantwide Control / 147

9.5 Conclusion / 158

References / 158

10 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF THE ETHYL BENZENE PROCESS 159

10.1 Introduction / 159

10.2 Process Studied / 160

10.2.1 Reaction Kinetics / 161

10.2.2 Phase Equilibrium / 162

10.2.3 Flowsheet / 163

10.3 Design of Distillation Columns / 164

10.3.1 Column Pressure Selection / 166

10.3.2 Number of Column Trays / 169

10.4 Economic Optimization of Entire Process / 169

10.5 Plantwide Control / 172

10.5.1 Distillation Column Control Structure / 172

10.5.2 Plantwide Control Structure / 173

10.5.3 Controller Tuning / 174

10.5.4 Dynamic Performance / 174

10.5.5 Modified Control Structure / 176

10.6 Conclusion / 183

References / 183

11 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF A METHANOL REACTOR/COLUMN PROCESS 185

11.1 Introduction / 185

11.2 Process Studied / 186

11.2.1 Compression and Reactor Preheating / 186

11.2.2 Reactor / 187

11.2.3 Separator, Recycle, and Vent / 187

11.2.4 Flash and Distillation / 188

11.3 Reaction Kinetics / 188

11.4 Overall and Per-Pass Conversion / 189

11.5 Phase Equilibrium / 191

11.6 Effects of Design Optimization Variables / 192

11.6.1 Economic Basis / 192

11.6.2 Effect of Pressure / 193

11.6.3 Effect of Reactor Size / 195

11.6.4 Effect of Vent/Recycle Split / 196

11.6.5 Effect of Flash-Tank Pressure / 197

11.6.6 Optimum Distillation Column Design / 198

11.7 Plantwide Control / 201

11.7.1 Control Structure / 201

11.7.2 Column Control Structure Selection / 203

11.7.3 High-Pressure Override Controller / 203

11.7.4 Dynamic Performance Results / 204

11.8 Conclusion / 209

References / 210

12 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF THE METHOXY-METHYL-HEPTANE PROCESS 211

12.1 Introduction / 211

12.2 Process Studied / 212

12.2.1 Reactor / 212

12.2.2 Column C1 / 213

12.2.3 Column C2 / 213

12.2.4 Column C3 / 213

12.3 Reaction Kinetics / 213

12.4 Phase Equilibrium / 215

12.5 Design Optimization / 215

12.5.1 Economic Basis / 216

12.5.2 Reactor Size versus Recycle Trade-Off / 216

12.6 Optimum Distillation Column Design / 220

12.6.1 Column Pressures / 220

12.6.2 Number of Stages / 220

12.6.3 Column Profiles / 222

12.7 Plantwide Control / 223

12.7.1 Control Structure / 225

12.7.2 Dynamic Performance Results / 227

12.8 Conclusion / 230

References / 231

13 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF A METHYL ACETATE PROCESS USING CARBONYLATION OF DIMETHYL ETHER 233

13.1 Introduction / 233

13.2 Dehydration Section / 234

13.2.1 Process Description of Dehydration Section / 234

13.2.2 Dehydration Kinetics / 235

13.2.3 Alternative Flowsheets / 236

13.2.4 Optimization of Three Flowsheets / 240

13.3 Carbonylation Section / 245

13.3.1 Process Description / 246

13.3.2 Carbonylation Kinetics / 247

13.3.3 Effect of Parameters / 248

13.3.4 Flowsheet Convergence / 250

13.3.5 Optimization / 251

13.4 Plantwide Control / 255

13.4.1 Control Structure / 255

13.4.2 Dynamic Performance / 261

13.5 Conclusion / 262

References / 262

14 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF THE MONO-ISOPROPYL AMINE PROCESS 263

14.1 Introduction / 263

14.2 Process Studied / 264

14.2.1 Reaction Kinetics / 264

14.2.2 Phase Equilibrium / 265

14.2.3 Flowsheet / 266

14.3 Economic Optimization / 268

14.3.1 Design Optimization Variables / 268

14.3.2 Optimization Results / 269

14.4 Plantwide Control / 270

14.4.1 Dynamic Model Sizing / 271

14.4.2 Distillation Column Control Structures / 272

14.4.3 Plantwide Control Structure / 276

14.5 Conclusion / 289

References / 290

15 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF THE STYRENE PROCESS 291

15.1 Introduction / 292

15.2 Kinetics and Phase Equilibrium / 293

15.2.1 Reaction Kinetics / 293

15.2.2 Phase Equilibrium / 294

15.3 Vasudevan et al. Flowsheet / 295

15.3.1 Reactors / 295

15.3.2 Condenser and Decanter / 295

15.3.3 Product Column C1 / 296

15.3.4 Recycle Column C2 / 298

15.4 Effects of Design Optimization Variables / 298

15.4.1 Effect of Process Steam / 298

15.4.2 Effect of Reactor Inlet Temperature / 301

15.4.3 Effect of Reactor Size / 302

15.4.4 Optimum Distillation Column Design / 303

15.4.5 Number of Reactors / 304

15.4.6 Reoptimization / 304

15.4.7 Other Improvements / 305

15.5 Proposed Design / 305

15.6 Plantwide Control / 306

15.6.1 Control Structure / 306

15.6.2 Column Control Structure Selection / 310

15.6.3 Dynamic Performance Results / 312

15.7 Conclusion / 317

References / 317

NOMENCLATURE 319

INDEX 321

See More

WILLIAM L. LUYBEN, PhD, is a professor at Lehigh University, and the author/co-author of thirteen textbooks. He has published over 250 technical papers in the area of process control and design and has supervised thirty-five PhD dissertations He has nine years of industrial experience with Exxon and DuPont.

See More
"I highly recommend the important and all encompassing book Principles and Case Studies of Simultaneous Design by William L. Luyben, to any chemistry or engineering students, practicing chemical engineers, product designers in industry, and business leaders looking for a fresh approach to simultaneous design issues. This book will transform your company's industrial processes and product design into one of a leader in process design." (Blog Business World, 26 November 2011)

 

See More

Related Titles

Back to Top