Ebook
GravityDriven Water Flow in Networks: Theory and DesignISBN: 9781118002087
541 pages
December 2011

Preface.
Acknowledgments.
1. Introduction.
1.1 Water Distribution Networks and their Design.
1.2 Feasibility for GravityDriven Water Networks.
1.3 The Elements.
1.4 Engineering Design.
1.5 GravityDriven Water Network Distinguishing Characteristics.
1.6 The Fundamental Problem.
1.7 A Brief Background.
1.8 Approach.
1.9 Key Features of the Book.
References.
2. The Fundamental Principles.
2.1 The Problem Under Consideration.
2.2 The Energy Equation for Pipe Flow.
2.3 A Static Fluid.
2.4 Length Scales for GravityDriven Water Networks.
2.5 Mass Conservation.
2.6 Special Case of Reservoir at State 1.
2.7 Single and MultiplePipe Networks Revisited.
2.8 The Role of the Momentum Equation.
2.9 Forced Flows.
2.10 Summary.
Bibliography.
3. Pipe Materials and Dimensions.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Pipe Materials.
3.3 The Different Contexts for Pipe Diameter.
3.4 Pipe Size Systems.
3.5 Choosing and Appropriate Nominal Pipe Size.
References.
4. Classes of Pipe Flow Problems and Solutions.
4.1 The Classes.
4.2 Pipe Flow Problem of Class 4.
4.3 The Problem Statement.
4.4 Setting Up the Problem.
4.5 Different Approaches to the Solution.
4.6 Summary.
References.
5. MinorLossless Flow in a SinglePipe Network.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Solution and Basic Results.
5.3 Limiting Case of a Vertical Pipe.
5.4 Design Graphs for MinorLossless Flow.
5.5 Comprehensive Design Plots for GravityDriven or Forced Flow.
5.6 The Forgiving Nature of Sizing Pipe.
References.
6. "Natural Diameter" for a Pipe.
6.1 Motivation.
6.2 Equation of Local Static Pressure.
6.3 An Illustration: The “Natural Diameter”.
6.4 Commentary.
6.5 Local Static Pressure for a #D Network.
6.6 Graphical Interpretations.
6.7 Summary.
References.
7. The Effects of Minor Losses.
7.1 Nature of the Minor Loss.
7.2 A Numerical Example.
7.3 The Case for Uniform D.
7.4 Importance Threshold for Minor Losses.
7.5 Fixed and Variable Minor Losses.
References.
8. Examples for a SinglePipe Network.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 A Straight Pipe.
8.3 Format of Mathcad Worksheets for SinglePipe Network.
8.4 Specific Atmospheric Delivery Pressure.
8.5 Specified Nonatmospheric Delivery Pressure.
8.6 The Effect of Local Peaks in the Pipe.
8.7 A Network Designed from Site Survey Data.
8.8 Draining a Tank: A Transient Problem.
8.9 The Syphon.
9. Approximation for the Friction Factor.
9.1 The Problem.
9.2 A Recommendation.
9.3 Energy Equation: Friction Factor from Blasius Formula.
9.4 Forced Flows.
9.5 Summary.
References.
10. Optimization.
10.1 Fundamentals.
10.2 The Optimal Fluid Network.
10.3 The Objective Function.
10.4 A General Optimization Method.
10.5 Optimization Using Mathcad.
10.6 Optimizing a GravityDriven Water Network.
10.7 Minimizing Entropy Generation.
10.8 Summary.
References.
11. MultiplePipe Networks.
11.1 Introduction.
11.2 Background.
11.3 Our Approach.
11.4 A simplebranch Network.
11.5 Pipes of Different Diameters in Series.
11.6 MultipleBranch Network.
11.7 Loop Network.
11.8 Large, Complex Networks.
11.9 MultiplePipe Networks with Forced Flow.
11.10 Perspective: A Conventional Approach.
11.11 Closure.
References.
12. MicroHydroelectric Power Generation.
12.1 Background.
12.2 The System.
12.3 Approach.
12.4 Analysis.
12.5 Hybrid Hydroelectric Power and Water Network.
12.6 Summary.
References.
13. Network Design.
13.1 The Design Process.
13.2 Overview.
13.3 Accurate Dimensional Data for the Site.
13.4 Calculating Design Information from SiteSurvey Data.
13.5 Estimating Water Supply and Demand.
13.6 The Reservoir Tank.
13.7 The Tapstand.
13.8 Estimating Peak Water Flow Rates.
13.9 Source Development.
13.10 Hydrostatic Pressure Issues.
13.11The BreakPressure Tank.
13.12 The Sedimentation Tank.
13.13 Flow Speed Limits.
13.14 Dissipation of Potential Energy.
13.15 Designing for Peak Demand: Pipe Oversizing.
13.16 Water Hammer.
References.
14. Air Pockets in the Network.
14.1 The Problem.
14.2 The Physics of Air/Liquid Pipe Flows.
14.3 Flow in a Pipe with Local High Points.
14.4 Effect of Air Pockets on Flow.
14.5 An Example.
14.6 Summary.
References.
15. Case Study.
15.1 Engineering Design: Science and Art.
15.2 Design Process Revisited.
15.3 The Case.
References.
16. Exercises.
16.1 Comments.
16.2 The Problems.
16.3 The Solutions.
References.
Appendix A: List of Mathcad Worksheets.
Appendix B: Calculating Pipe Length & Mean Slope from GPS Data.
B.1 The Basics: Northing and Easting.
B.2 An Example.
References.
Appendix C: Mathcad Tutorial.
Index.
Author Index.