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Gravity-Driven Water Flow in Networks: Theory and Design

ISBN: 978-1-118-00208-7
541 pages
December 2011
Gravity-Driven Water Flow in Networks: Theory and Design (1118002083) cover image
Gravity-driven water flow networks are a crucial method of delivering clean water to millions of people worldwide, and an essential agricultural tool. This book provides an all-encompassing guide to designing these water networks, combining theory and case studies. It includes design formulas for water flow in single or multiple, uniform or non-uniform diameter pipe networks; case studies on how systems are built, used, and maintained; comprehensive coverage of pipe materials, pressure ratings, and dimensions; and over 100 illustrations and tables. It is a key resource both for working engineers and engineering students and instructors.
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List of Symbols.

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

1. Introduction.

1.1 Water Distribution Networks and their Design.

1.2 Feasibility for Gravity-Driven Water Networks.

1.3 The Elements.

1.4 Engineering Design.

1.5 Gravity-Driven Water Network Distinguishing Characteristics.

1.6 The Fundamental Problem.

1.7 A Brief Background.

1.8 Approach.

1.9 Key Features of the Book.

References.

2. The Fundamental Principles.

2.1 The Problem Under Consideration.

2.2 The Energy Equation for Pipe Flow.

2.3 A Static Fluid.

2.4 Length Scales for Gravity-Driven Water Networks.

2.5 Mass Conservation.

2.6 Special Case of Reservoir at State 1.

2.7 Single- and Multiple-Pipe Networks Revisited.

2.8 The Role of the Momentum Equation.

2.9 Forced Flows.

2.10 Summary.

Bibliography.

3. Pipe Materials and Dimensions.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Pipe Materials.

3.3 The Different Contexts for Pipe Diameter.

3.4 Pipe Size Systems.

3.5 Choosing and Appropriate Nominal Pipe Size.

References.

4. Classes of Pipe Flow Problems and Solutions.

4.1 The Classes.

4.2 Pipe Flow Problem of Class 4.

4.3 The Problem Statement.

4.4 Setting Up the Problem.

4.5 Different Approaches to the Solution.

4.6 Summary.

References.

5. Minor-Lossless Flow in a Single-Pipe Network.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Solution and Basic Results.

5.3 Limiting Case of a Vertical Pipe.

5.4 Design Graphs for Minor-Lossless Flow.

5.5 Comprehensive Design Plots for Gravity-Driven or Forced Flow.

5.6 The Forgiving Nature of Sizing Pipe.

References.

6. "Natural Diameter" for a Pipe.

6.1 Motivation.

6.2 Equation of Local Static Pressure.

6.3 An Illustration: The “Natural Diameter”.

6.4 Commentary.

6.5 Local Static Pressure for a #D Network.

6.6 Graphical Interpretations.

6.7 Summary.

References.

7. The Effects of Minor Losses.

7.1 Nature of the Minor Loss.

7.2 A Numerical Example.

7.3 The Case for Uniform D.

7.4 Importance Threshold for Minor Losses.

7.5 Fixed and Variable Minor Losses.

References.

8. Examples for a Single-Pipe Network.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 A Straight Pipe.

8.3 Format of Mathcad Worksheets for Single-Pipe Network.

8.4 Specific Atmospheric Delivery Pressure.

8.5 Specified Non-atmospheric Delivery Pressure.

8.6 The Effect of Local Peaks in the Pipe.

8.7 A Network Designed from Site Survey Data.

8.8 Draining a Tank: A Transient Problem.

8.9 The Syphon.

9. Approximation for the Friction Factor.

9.1 The Problem.

9.2 A Recommendation.

9.3 Energy Equation: Friction Factor from Blasius Formula.

9.4 Forced Flows.

9.5 Summary.

References.

10. Optimization.

10.1 Fundamentals.

10.2 The Optimal Fluid Network.

10.3 The Objective Function.

10.4 A General Optimization Method.

10.5 Optimization Using Mathcad.

10.6 Optimizing a Gravity-Driven Water Network.

10.7 Minimizing Entropy Generation.

10.8 Summary.

References.

11. Multiple-Pipe Networks.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Background.

11.3 Our Approach.

11.4 A simple-branch Network.

11.5 Pipes of Different Diameters in Series.

11.6 Multiple-Branch Network.

11.7 Loop Network.

11.8 Large, Complex Networks.

11.9 Multiple-Pipe Networks with Forced Flow.

11.10 Perspective: A Conventional Approach.

11.11 Closure.

References.

12. Micro-Hydroelectric Power Generation.

12.1 Background.

12.2 The System.

12.3 Approach.

12.4 Analysis.

12.5 Hybrid Hydroelectric Power and Water Network.

12.6 Summary.

References.

13. Network Design.

13.1 The Design Process.

13.2 Overview.

13.3 Accurate Dimensional Data for the Site.

13.4 Calculating Design Information from Site-Survey Data.

13.5 Estimating Water Supply and Demand.

13.6 The Reservoir Tank.

13.7 The Tapstand.

13.8 Estimating Peak Water Flow Rates.

13.9 Source Development.

13.10 Hydrostatic Pressure Issues.

13.11The Break-Pressure Tank.

13.12 The Sedimentation Tank.

13.13 Flow Speed Limits.

13.14 Dissipation of Potential Energy.

13.15 Designing for Peak Demand: Pipe Oversizing.

13.16 Water Hammer.

References.

14. Air Pockets in the Network.

14.1 The Problem.

14.2 The Physics of Air/Liquid Pipe Flows.

14.3 Flow in a Pipe with Local High Points.

14.4 Effect of Air Pockets on Flow.

14.5 An Example.

14.6 Summary.

References.

15. Case Study.

15.1 Engineering Design: Science and Art.

15.2 Design Process Revisited.

15.3 The Case.

References.

16. Exercises.

16.1 Comments.

16.2 The Problems.

16.3 The Solutions.

References.

Appendix A: List of Mathcad Worksheets.

Appendix B: Calculating Pipe Length & Mean Slope from GPS Data.

B.1 The Basics: Northing and Easting.

B.2 An Example.

References.

Appendix C: Mathcad Tutorial.

Index.

Author Index.

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Gerard F. Jones is Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at Villanova University and former chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Before earning his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania in the early 1980s, he gained several years of experience in industry as a project engineer for a large oil company. After attaining his PhD, he was technical staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory for seven years, where he performed research on solar and geothermal technologies. He is a co-initiator of the service-learning effort at Villanova to engage engineering students in helping challenged communities in Central America and other locations around the world to provide clean water for their families. He has published over seventy-five papers and journal articles, and has led numerous conference proceedings. He is also a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
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