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Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security

ISBN: 978-1-118-00439-5
488 pages
April 2012
Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security (1118004396) cover image

For many, smart grids are the biggest technological revolution since the Internet. They have the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, increase the reliability of electricity supply, and increase the efficiency of our energy infrastructure.

Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security explains how diverse technologies play hand-in-hand in building and maintaining smart grids around the globe. The book delves into the communication aspects of smart grids, provides incredible insight into power electronics, sensing, monitoring, and control technologies, and points out the potential for new technologies and markets.

Extensively cross-referenced, the book contains comprehensive coverage in four major parts:

  • Part I: Applications provides a detailed introduction to smart grid applications—spanning the transmission, distribution, and consumer side of the electricity grid
  • Part II: Communications discusses wireless, wireline, and optical communication solutions—from the physical layers up to sensing, automation, and control protocols running on the application layers
  • Part III: Security deals with cyber security—sharpening the awareness of security threats, reviewing the ongoing standardization, and outlining the future of authentication and encryption key management
  • Part IV: Case Studies and Field Trials presents self-contained chapters of studies where the smart grid of tomorrow has already been put into practice With contributions from major industry stakeholders such as Siemens, Cisco, ABB, and Motorola, this is the ideal book for both engineering professionals and students.
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Preface xv

Contributors xvii

PART I APPLICATIONS

1 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID APPLICATIONS 3
Xiaoming Feng, James Stoupis, Salman Mohagheghi, and Mats Larsson

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Voltage and Var Control and Optimization 5

1.3 Fault Detection, Isolation, and Restoration (FDIR) 14

1.4 Demand Response (DR) 21

1.5 Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) 25

1.6 Wide-Area Monitoring, Control, and Protection (WAMCP) 28

2 ELECTRIC VEHICLES AS A DRIVER FOR SMART GRIDS 49
Nigel Fitzpatrick and Alec Tsang

2.1 Introduction 49

2.2 Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Hybrids 50

2.3 Hybrids 51

2.4 The General Electric Delta Car 52

2.5 Batteries, Ultracapacitors, and Semi and Full-Fuel Cells 53

2.6 Lithium Ion 56

2.7 Cell Voltage, Reliability of Stacks, and Impact of Inverters 57

2.8 Battery Mass Fraction, Energy, Power, Benefi ts and a Penalty 58

2.9 Vehicle Classes, Niches, and Constraints 59

2.10 Messages from Full-Cycle Modeling, Energy Security, and Air Quality 60

2.11 Market Penetration by Vehicle Niche 60

2.12 Vehicle Architecture, Key Components, Controls, and Cost 61

2.13 Grid to Vehicle (G2V) Charging: Levels 1 to 3 62

2.14 Grid Impacts 64

2.15 Vehicle to Grid (V2G): A First or Second Order Matter? 66

2.16 Second Life for Used Vehicle Batteries Grid-Side Instead? 68

2.17 The City and the Vehicle 69

2.18 Impact of Electric Drive on Greenhouse Gas Emissions 69

2.19 Conclusions 70

3 AUTONOMOUS DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT 75
Hamed Mohsenian-Rad and Alberto Leon-Garcia

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Direct and Indirect Demand-Side Management 77

3.3 Autonomous Demand-Side Management 79

3.4 Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling 82

3.5 Price Prediction 88

3.6 Managing User-Side Storage and Generation 91

3.7 Conclusion 92

4 POWER ELECTRONICS FOR MONITORING, SIGNALING, AND PROTECTION 97
Wilsun Xu

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Power Line Communication 98

4.3 Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection 102

4.4 Active Protection 109

4.5 Power Electronics Signaling Technology 113

4.6 Conclusions 115

PART II COMMUNICATIONS

5 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS 121
Wenbo Shi and Vincent W. S. Wong

5.1 Introduction 122

5.2 An Overview of Network Architecture 124

5.3 Premises Network 127

5.4 Neighborhood Area Network 131

5.5 Wide Area Network 135

5.6 Standardization Activities 138

5.7 Conclusions 141

6 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS IN SMART GRIDS 145
Juan José García Fernández, Lars Torsten Berger, Ana García Armada, María Julia Fernández-Getino García, Víctor P. Gil Jiménez, and Troels B. Sørensen

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Wireless Personal Area Networks 150

6.3 Wireless Local Area Networks 156

6.4 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks 162

6.5 Cellular Networks 165

6.6 Satellite Communications 170

6.7 Conclusions 181

7 WIRELINE COMMUNICATIONS IN SMART GRIDS 191
Lars Torsten Berger

7.1 Introduction 191

7.2 Phone Line Technology 195

7.3 Coaxial Cable Technologies 201

7.4 Power Line Technology 204

7.4.1 PLC Scenarios, Channel, and Noise Aspects, 205

7.5 Conclusions 220

8 OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS IN SMART GRIDS 231
Kris Iniewski

8.1 Introduction 231

8.2 Passive Optical Networks (PONs) 232

8.3 Wave Lengh Division Multiplexing (WDM) 235

8.4 SONET/SDH 238

8.5 Carrier Ethernet 239

8.6 Conclusions 241

9 NETWORK LAYER ASPECTS OF SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS 243
Kris Iniewski

9.1 Introduction 243

9.2 TCP/IP Networks 244

9.3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 248

9.4 Conclusions 248

10 SMART GRID SENSING, AUTOMATION, AND CONTROL PROTOCOLS 251
Wolfgang Mahnke

10.1 Introduction 251

10.2 Protocols and Standards 259

10.3 Conclusions 286

PART III SECURITY

11 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID CYBER SECURITY 295
Pedro Marín Fernandes

11.1 Introduction 295

11.2 Examples 299

11.3 Conclusion 316

12 SMART GRID SECURITY STANDARDIZATION 321
Steffen Fries and Hans-Joachim Hof

12.1 Standardization Activities 321

12.2 Smart Grid Security Requirements 321

12.3 Security Relevant Regulation and Standardization Activities 323

12.4 Trends in Energy Automation Security 332

12.5 Conclusion 333

13 SMART GRID AUTHENTICATION AND KEY MANAGEMENT 337
Anthony Metke

13.1 Introduction and Scope 337

13.2 Authentication and Authorization Issues in the Smart Grid 347

13.3 Architectural Considerations and Recommendations 350

13.4 Conclusion and Next Steps 358

PART IV CASE STUDIES AND FIELD TRIALS

14 HYBRID WIRELESS–PLC SMART GRID IN RURAL GREECE 365
Angeliki M. Sarafi , Athanasios E. Drougas, Petros I. Papaioannou, and Panayotis G. Cottis

14.1 Introduction 365

14.2 Network Design and Implementation 366

14.3 Smart-Grid Applications Offered in Larissa 371

14.4 Key Lessons Learned 375

14.5 Conclusions 378

15 SMART CHARGING THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE FLEET 381
Peter Bach Andersen, Einar Bragi Hauksson, Anders Bro Pedersen, Dieter Gantenbein, Bernhard Jansen, Claus Amtrup Andersen, and Jacob Dall

15.1 Introduction 381

15.2 The Fleet Operator as a New Conceptual Role 382

15.3 EDISON and the Use of Standards 386

15.4 Smart Charging Communication Components 390

15.5 Charging Infrastructure Communication 394

15.6 Demonstration 400

15.7 Conclusion and Future Work 403

16 REAL-TIME ESTIMATION OF TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS 409
Wenyuan Li, Paul Choudhury, and Jun Sun

16.1 Introduction 409

16.2 Basic Concepts 410

16.3 Filtering Invalid Measurements 412

16.4 Estimating Parameters Rij, Xij, and Y 414

16.5 Simulation Results 417

16.6 Conclusions 421

17 WAMCP STUDY: VOLTAGE STABILITY MONITORING AND CONTROL 429
Mats Larsson

17.1 Wide-Area Voltage Stability Protection 429

17.1.2 Heuristic Tree Search, 431

17.1.3 Voltage Stability Protection Based on Local Measurements, 433

17.1.4 Test Network, 433

17.1.5 Scenarios and Simulation Results, 436

17.2 Conclusion 440

18 SECURE REMOTE ACCESS TO HOME ENERGY APPLIANCES 443
Steffen Fries and Hans-Joachim Hof

18.1 Introduction 443

18.2 Challenges in the Smart Grid 444

18.3 Access Control and Authorization for Remote Access to Home Energy Appliances 446

Reference

Index 455

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Lars Torsten Berger, Phd, is founder of BreezeSolve, a Valencia-based company offering engineering and consultant services in telecommunications, signal processing, and smart grid. He is currently also directing the R&D Department of Kenus Informática, Paterna, Spain. In his career, Dr. Berger has worked for Daimler-Benz Aerospace, Nortel Networks, Nokia Networks, as well as DS2, and has held faculty positions at Aalborg University, Denmark, and Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain.

Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski, Phd, is managing R&D at Redlen Technologies Inc., a start-up company in Vancouver, Canada. Redlen's revolutionary production process for advanced semiconductor materials enables a new generation of more accurate, all-digital, radiation-based imaging solutions. Dr. Iniewski is also Executive Director of CMOS Emerging Technologies. In his career, Dr. Iniewski has held numerous faculty and management positions at the University of Toronto, University of Alberta, SFU, and PMC-Sierra Inc. He has published over 100 research papers in international journals and conferences, holds eighteen international patents, and has written and edited several books.

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“I highly recommend the very complete reference book Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security, edited by Lars T. Berger, Ph.D., and Krzysztof Iniewski, Ph.D., to any engineers, power utility executives, business leaders, policy makers, government officials, and engineering students who are seeking a useful overview of the various aspects of the smart grid and its impact. This book will provide the essential foundation to understanding the smart grid, and will lead to further more specialized research and study as well.” (Blog Business World, 2012)

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