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Airport Engineering: Planning, Design and Development of 21st Century Airports, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-00547-7
768 pages
April 2011
Airport Engineering: Planning, Design and Development of 21st Century Airports, 4th Edition (1118005473) cover image

Description

First published in 1979, Airport Engineering by Ashford and Wright, has become a classic textbook in the education of airport engineers and transportation planners. Over the past twenty years, construction of new airports in the US has waned as construction abroad boomed. This new edition of Airport Engineering will respond to this shift in the growth of airports globally, with a focus on the role of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), while still providing the best practices and tested fundamentals that have made the book successful for over 30 years.
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 The Structure and Organization of Air Transport 1

1.1 The Need for National and International Organizations 1

1.2 The International Civil Aviation Organization 1

1.3 Nongovernmental Organizations 4

1.4 U.S. Governmental Organizations 4

1.5 Aviation Planning and Regulation at State Level 6

1.6 Patterns of Airport Ownership 7

1.7 Revenues and Expenditures at U.S. Airports 9

1.8 Sources of Capital Financing for U.S. Airports 11

1.9 Federal Financing 15

1.10 The U.S. National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems: A Classification of Airports 18

References 20

2 Forecasting Air Transport Demand 21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Components of Air Transport Demand 25

2.3 Conventional Airport Forecast Methods 26

2.4 Integrated Demand Forecast Framework 33

2.5 Multiairport Region Forecast Framework 43

2.6 Air Trip Distribution Models 60

2.7 Modal Choice Models 62

2.8 Generation–Distribution Models 63

2.9 Air Freight Demand Forecasts 66

2.10 General Aviation Forecasts 68

2.11 Route Choice Models 70

References 71

3 Characteristics of Aircraft As They Affect Airports 74

3.1 Relationships between Aircraft and Airports 74

3.2 The Influence of Aircraft Design on Runway Length 76

3.3 Other Airport Layout Factors 94

3.4 Factors Affecting Airport Capacity 97

3.5 Noise 98

3.6 Future Trends in Aircraft Design 101

References 104

4 Airport System Planning 105

4.1 Aviation System Planning 105

4.2 Levels of Planning 106

4.3 Planning Airport Systems under Different States of Industry 106

4.4 Effect of Airline Hubs and Deregulation on U.S. Airport System 110

4.5 Air Transport Planning in the United States 115

4.6 Airport System Planning in Europe 129

4.7 Airport System Plan Analysis 131

4.8 Data Structure for Airport System Planning 145

References 148

5 Airport Master Planning 150

5.1 Airport Master Plan: Definition and Objectives 150

5.2 Hierarchy of Planning 151

5.3 Elements of Airport Master Plan: FAA 151

5.4 ICAO Guidelines for Structure of Master Plan 160

5.5 Airport Layout Design 162

5.6 Data Requirements for Master Planning 163

5.7 Structure of Master Plan Report 167

5.8 Airport Site Selection 177

References 178

6 CNS/ATM 179

6.1 Evolution of the System 179

6.2 U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) 183

6.3 CNS/ATM of the NAS 193

6.4 Next-Generation Systems 230

References 232

7 Airport Capacity 234

7.1 Introduction 234

7.2 Capacity, Level of Service, and Demand Peaking 235

7.3 Airside Capacity 237

7.4 Factors Affecting Airside Capacity and Delay 241

7.5 Determination of Runway Capacity and Delay 245

7.6 Annual Service Volume 256

7.7 Preliminary Capacity Analyses 258

7.8 Calculating Aircraft Delay 260

7.9 Taxiway Capacity 264

7.10 Gate Capacity 264

7.11 Assessing System Capacity–Delay for Airport Development 266

7.12 Airport Landside Capacity 273

References 294

8 Airside Configuration and Geometric Design of the Airside 297

8.1 Introduction 297

8.2 Principles of Airport Layout 298

8.3 Airfield Configuration 298

8.4 Runway Orientation 301

8.5 Obstructions to Airspace: FAA and ICAO Standards 309

8.6 Runway Length 312

8.7 Clearways and Stopways 318

8.8 ICAO Reference Code 319

8.9 FAA Airport Reference Code 321

8.10 Separation of Parallel Runways 322

8.11 Runway and Taxiway Cross Section 323

8.12 Object-Clearing Criteria 330

8.13 Longitudinal-Grade Design for Runways and Stopways 332

8.14 Longitudinal-Grade Design for Taxiways 335

8.15 Taxiway Design 336

8.16 Holding Aprons 340

8.17 Terminal Aprons 340

8.18 Summary 349

References 349

9 Safeguarding the Airport 351

9.1 Airport Safety 351

9.2 Airport Security 359

9.3 Airport Emergency Planning 361

9.4 Planning of Airport Security 367

9.5 Safeguarding the Airspace 373

References 412

10 Passenger Terminal 414

10.1 Function of Airport Passenger Terminal 414

10.2 Terminal User 414

10.3 Facilities Required at Passenger Terminal 415

10.4 Passenger and Baggage Flow 417

10.5 Security Considerations in Passenger Terminal Design and Layout 418

10.6 Terminal Design Concepts 420

10.7 Vertical Distribution of Activities 424

10.8 Passenger Behavior in Terminal 426

10.9 Importance of Passenger Terminal Expenditures 428

10.10 Space Requirements for Individual Facilities 429

10.11 Baggage Handling 438

10.12 Terminals for Low-Cost Carriers 444

10.13 Expandability, Modularity, and Flexibility 444

10.14 Number of Aircraft Gates 447

10.15 Parking Configurations and Apron Layout 452

10.16 Apron Facilities and Requirements 454

References 456

11 Air Cargo Facilities 457

11.1 Importance of Air Cargo 457

11.2 Functions of Cargo Terminal 457

11.3 Factors Affecting Size and Form of Cargo Terminal 458

11.4 Flow through Airport Cargo Terminal 462

11.5 Pallets, Containers, Igloos, and Other Unitized Systems 465

11.6 Freight-Carrying Aircraft 469

11.7 Documentation and Control 469

11.8 Apron Cargo Handling 471

11.9 Elements to Be Considered in Design of Air Freight Terminals 472

11.10 Example of Design of Middle-Technology Freight Terminal 474

11.11 Design of Highly Mechanized Cargo Terminal with Container Stacks and ETV 479

11.12 Mail and Express Parcels Facilities 485

11.13 Conclusion 486

References 488

12 Airport Drainage and Pavement Design 489

AIRPORT DRAINAGE 489

12.1 Introduction 489

12.2 Estimation of Runoff 490

12.3 Collection and Disposal of Runoff 496

12.4 Subsurface Drainage 504

STRUCTURAL PAVEMENT DESIGN 508

12.5 Introduction 508

12.6 Flexible-Pavement Design Methods (U.S. Practice) 516

12.7 Rigid-Pavement Design Methods (U.S. Practice) 527

12.8 Pavements for Light Aircraft 536

12.9 Aircraft and Pavement Classification Numbers 538

References 541

13 Airport Access 543

13.1 Access Problem 543

13.2 Determining Mix of Access Modes 547

13.3 Available Access Modes 548

13.4 Access Modal Choice Models 557

13.5 Parking Space at Airports 559

13.6 Curbfront Design 562

13.7 Capacity of Access Routes 564

13.8 Layout of Access 564

13.9 Summary 571

References 571

14 Heliports, STOLports, and Vertiports 573

14.1 Introduction 573

14.2 Helicopter Characteristics and Trends 573

14.3 Planning and Design of Heliports 577

14.4 Planning and Design of STOLports 595

14.5 Planning and Design of STOL Facilities 596

14.6 Planning and Design of Vertiports 600

References 601

15 Airport Modeling and Simulation 602

15.1 Introduction 602

15.2 Definitions and Concepts 603

15.3 Airport Simulations 609

15.4 Airfield–Airspace Simulation 610

15.5 Environmental Simulation Models 635

15.6 Airport–Landside Simulation 644

15.7 Airport GIS 653

References 655

16 Airport City 659

16.1 Introduction 659

16.2 Global City 660

16.3 Building Blocks of Airport City 662

16.4 Anatomy of Aerotropolis 666

16.5 Airport Cities of the World 673

16.6 Planning of Airport City and Aerotropolis 700

References 703

17 Environmental Impacts of Airports 704

17.1 Introduction 704

17.2 Environmental Legislation 705

17.3 Airport Environmental Guidance 706

17.4 Environmental Review Process 707

17.5 Air Emissions/Quality 714

17.6 Biodiversity and Natural Resources 720

17.7 Historic, Archaeological, Architectural, and Cultural Resources 721

17.8 Noise and Land Use 721

17.9 Social and Socioeconomic Resources 729

17.10 Waste Management 731

17.11 Water Resources 732

17.12 Sustainable Development 733

References 736

Index 739

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Author Information

Norman J. Ashford is Professor Emeritus at Loughborough University of Technology in the UK. He has taught at Georgia Institute of Technology and Florida State University in the United States. He was editor of numerous professional journals and has published over 130 articles in various professional and research publications. The author of four multi-edition books, he currently serves as the Managing Director of his own aviation consulting company, which has worked on over 100 airports in over forty-three countries.

Saleh A. Mumayiz is an international consultant in airport planning and development for more than twenty-five years, serving with leading corporations in this field. He served in academic research and continuing education roles in leading U.S. universities. As an active participant in professional (ASCE) and research (TRB) organizations for more than twenty years, he served as chair and member of various TRB and ASCE committees, authoring papers and organizing conferences, workshops, and seminars.

Paul H. Wright is Professor Emeritus at Georgia Institute of Technology. He has been active in continuing education programs and has served as a consultant to transportation agencies in the United States and Central America. The author of numerous papers, he is coauthor of three other books: Highway Engineering, Transportation Engineering: Planning and Design, and Introduction to Engineering.

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