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Effective FMEAs: Achieving Safe, Reliable, and Economical Products and Processes using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

ISBN: 978-1-118-00743-3
464 pages
May 2012
Effective FMEAs: Achieving Safe, Reliable, and Economical Products and Processes using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (1118007433) cover image

Outlines the correct procedures for doing FMEAs and how to successfully apply them in design, development, manufacturing, and service applications

There are a myriad of quality and reliability tools available to corporations worldwide, but the one that shows up consistently in company after company is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Effective FMEAs takes the best practices from hundreds of companies and thousands of FMEA applications and presents streamlined procedures for veteran FMEA practitioners, novices, and everyone in between.

Written from an applications viewpoint—with many examples, detailed case studies, study problems, and tips included—the book covers the most common types of FMEAs, including System FMEAs, Design FMEAs, Process FMEAs, Maintenance FMEAs, Software FMEAs, and others. It also presents chapters on Fault Tree Analysis, Design Review Based on Failure Mode (DRBFM), Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM), Hazard Analysis, and FMECA (which adds criticality analysis to FMEA).

With extensive study problems and a companion Solutions Manual, this book is an ideal resource for academic curricula, as well as for applications in industry. In addition, Effective FMEAs covers:

  • The basics of FMEAs and risk assessment

  • How to apply key factors for effective FMEAs and prevent the most common errors

  • What is needed to provide excellent FMEA facilitation

  • Implementing a "best practice" FMEA process

Everyone wants to support the accomplishment of safe and trouble-free products and processes while generating happy and loyal customers. This book will show readers how to use FMEA to anticipate and prevent problems, reduce costs, shorten product development times, and achieve safe and highly reliable products and processes.

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Series Editor's Foreword xvii

Copyrights and Permissions xix

Acknowledgments xxi

Introduction xxiii

Chapter 1. The Case for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 1

1.1 The Need for Effective FMEAs 1

1.2 FMEA Application by Industry 4

1.3 The Factor of 10 Rule 5

1.4 FMEA Successes 6

1.5 Brief History of FMEA 8

1.6 FMEA Standards and Guidelines 8

1.7 How to Use This Book 9

1.8 Web Companion to Effective FMEAs 10

1.9 End of Chapter Problems 10

Chapter 2. The Philosophy and Guiding Principles for Effective FMEAs 12

2.1 What Is Philosophy and Why Does It Matter to FMEAs? 12

2.2 Guiding Principles for Effective FMEAs 13

2.3 The Role of FMEA in Design for Reliability 17

2.4 You Can’t Anticipate Everything 18

2.5 End of Chapter Problems 19

Chapter 3. Understanding the Fundamental Defi nitions and Concepts of FMEAs 21

3.1 Definition of FMEA 21

3.2 Primary Objective of FMEA 22

3.3 Defi nition of Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis 22

3.4 Types of FMEAs 23

3.5 FMEA Defi nitions and Examples 25

3.6 Is It a Failure Mode, Effect, or Cause? 48

3.7 FMEA Glossary 49

3.8 Web Companion to Effective FMEAs 51

3.9 End of Chapter Problems 51

Chapter 4. Selection and Timing of FMEA Projects 56

4.1 Guidelines for When to Do FMEAs 56

4.2 FMEA Project Selection Criteria 58

4.3 Preliminary Risk Assessment 59

4.4 When to Do Different Types of FMEAs 60

4.5 Responsibility for FMEAs between OEMs and Suppliers 62

4.6 Introducing the All-Terrain Bicycle Case Study 63

4.7 End of Chapter Problems 64

Chapter 5. How to Perform an FMEA Project: Preparation 66

5.1 The Subject of FMEA Preparation 67

5.2 Preparation Tasks Done Once for All FMEA Projects 67

5.3 Preparation Tasks for Each New FMEA Project 78

5.4 End of Chapter Problems 103

Chapter 6. How to Perform an FMEA Project: Procedure 107

6.1 FMEA Procedure Sequence of Steps 108

6.2 Basic FMEA Procedure 109

6.3 FMEA Linkages 152

6.4 End of Chapter Problems 158

Chapter 7. How to Develop and Execute Effective Risk Reduction Actions 162

7.1 Prioritize Issues for Corrective Action 163

7.2 Develop Effective Recommended Actions 165

7.3 Action Strategies to Reduce Risk 166

7.4 Examples of Recommended Actions 176

7.5 FMEA Execution Enablers 176

7.6 The Essence of Execution 182

7.7 Documenting Actions Taken 182

7.8 Ensuring Risk Is Reduced to an Acceptable Level 183

7.9 End of Chapter Problems 183

Chapter 8. Case Studies 187

8.1 Case Study: Shock Absorber Assembly 188

8.2 Case Study: Strudel Pastry Manufacturing 190

8.3 Case Study: Motorola Solutions "Press-to-Talk" Feature 193

8.4 Case Study: Flashlight 200

8.5 Case Study: DC-10 Cargo Door Failure 200

8.6 Case Study: Space Shuttle Challenger O-Ring Failure 204

8.7 Case Study: Projector Lamp 206

8.8 Case Study: All-Terrain Bicycle 206

8.9 Case Study: Resin Lever 213

8.10 Case Study: Power Steering 217

8.11 Other Case Studies and Examples 217

8.12 Web Companion to Effective FMEAs 221

8.13 End of Chapter Problems 221

Chapter 9. Lessons Learned for Effective FMEAs 226

9.1 The Most Common FMEA Mistakes: How to Avoid Them and Audit Them 226

9.2 Summary of FMEA Quality Objectives 235

9.3 FMEA Quality Audit Procedure 235

9.4 End of Chapter Problems 236

Chapter 10. How to Facilitate Successful FMEA Projects 241

10.1 FMEA Facilitation 241

10.2 Effective Meetings 242

10.3 Primary FMEA Facilitation Skills 243

10.4 Unleashing Team Creativity 252

10.5 FMEA Facilitation Roles and Responsibilities 255

10.6 How to Reduce FMEA In-Meeting Time 261

10.7 Diffi culty Getting Consensus on Competing Ideas 261

10.8 End of Chapter Problems 263

Chapter 11. Implementing an Effective Company-Wide FMEA Process 266

11.1 What Is a Company-Wide FMEA Process and Why Is It Important? 266

11.2 Management Roles and Responsibilities 267

11.3 Effective FMEA Process 268

11.4 Lessons Learned in Implementing a Company-Wide FMEA Process 279

11.5 Company Climate for Sharing Failure Information 281

11.6 End of Chapter Problems 282

Chapter 12. Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) 285

12.1 Introduction to FMECA 285

12.2 When to Use FMECA 286

12.3 Brief History of FMECA 286

12.4 Types of FMECA 287

12.5 Quantitative Criticality Analysis 287

12.6 Qualitative Criticality Analysis 289

12.7 FMECA Criticality Matrix 292

12.8 FMECA Worksheet 292

12.9 Summary Output of FMECA 292

12.10 End of Chapter Problems 294

Chapter 13. Introduction to Design Review Based on Failure Mode (DRBFM) 297

13.1 What Is DRBFM? 297

13.2 Change Point Analysis 300

13.3 Conducting DRBFM Projects 302

13.4 How DRBFM Integrates with FMEA 304

13.5 DRBFM Worksheet 304

13.6 DRBFM Examples and Case Studies 304

13.7 Design Review Based on Test Results 309

13.8 DRBFM Glossary 311

13.9 DRBFM Resources for Further Study 312

13.10 End of Chapter Problems 313

Chapter 14. Introduction to Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 316

14.1 What Is Fault Tree Analysis? 316

14.2 FTA and FMEA 317

14.3 Brief History of FTA 318

14.4 Models 318

14.5 Events and Gates 318

14.6 FTA Example 319

14.7 FTA Glossary 320

14.8 FTA Procedure 323

14.9 FTA Handbooks and Standards 324

14.10 Use of FTA on Software 324

14.11 FTA Benefits and Limitations 324

14.12 End of Chapter Problems 326

Chapter 15. Other FMEA Applications 328

15.1 Reliability-Centered Maintenance 328

15.2 Hazard Analysis 340

15.3 Concept FMEA 347

15.4 Software FMEA 348

15.5 Failure Modes, Mechanisms, and Effects Analysis 356

15.6 Failure Modes, Effects, and Diagnostic Analysis 358

15.7 End of Chapter Problems 361

Chapter 16. Selecting the Right FMEA Software 365

16.1 Characteristics of Excellent FMEA Software 365

16.2 Why Not Just Use Spreadsheet Software? 368

16.3 Advantages of Relational Database 368

16.4 Using the Criteria for Selecting Relational Database Software 369

16.5 End of Chapter Problems 369

Appendices 371

Appendix A FMEA Scales 371

Appendix B FMEA Worksheet Forms 376

B.1 Design FMEA Worksheet Forms 377

B.2 Process FMEA Worksheet Forms 382

Appendix C All-Terrain Bicycle Documents 388

Appendix D Lists and Checklists 392

D.1 FMEA Preparation Checklists 392

D.2 Lists of Failure Mechanisms (excerpts from book) 396

D.3 FMEA Quality Objectives 399

D.4 FMEA Facilitation Checklists 400

D.5 FMEA Action Strategy Checklist 405

D.6 FMEA Quality Audit Procedure 409

D.7 FMEA Quality Survey Form 413

Appendix E FMEA Glossary 414

References 418

Index 419

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Carl S. Carlson is a consultant and instructor in the areas of FMEA, reliability program planning, and other reliability engineering disciplines. He also currently supports clients of ReliaSoft Corporation. He has thirty years' experience in reliability testing, engineering, and management positions, including manager of product reliability at General Motors. He co-chaired the cross-industry team that developed the commercial FMEA standard (SAE J1739, 2002 version) and was a past member of the Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS) Advisory Board. He holds a BS in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan and is a Certified Reliability Engineer.

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