Practical Lighting Design with LEDs
April 2011, Wiley-IEEE Press
1 Practical Introduction to LEDs.
What Is an LED?
Small LEDs versus Power Devices.
Phosphors versus RGB.
Inside an LED.
Is an LED Right for My Application?
The Wild West.
LEDs and OLEDs and . . . ?
2 Light Bulbs and Lighting Systems.
Characteristics of Light Sources.
Types of Bulbs.
History of Lighting.
3 Practical Introduction to Light.
The Power of Light.
Radiometric versus Photometric.
Luminous Intensity, Illuminance, and Luminance (or Candela, Lux, and Nits).
What Color White?
Color Rendition: How the Light Looks versus How Objects Look.
4 Practical Characteristics of LEDs.
Current, Not Voltage.
Not Efficiency—Effi cacy!
LED Optical Spectra.
Key Datasheet Parameters.
The Tolerance Game.
5 Practical Thermal Performance of LEDs.
Mechanisms Behind Thermal Shifts.
Electrical Behavior of LEDs With Temperature.
Optical Behavior of LEDs With Temperature.
Other Performance Shifts With Temperature.
LED Lifetime: Lumen Degradation.
LED Lifetime: Catastrophic Failure.
6 Practical Thermal Management of LEDs.
Introduction to Thermal Analysis.
Calculation of Thermal Resistance.
Practical Estimation of Temperature.
Removing Heat from the Drive Circuitry.
7 Practical DC Drive Circuitry for LEDs.
Overview of SMPS.
Input Voltage Limit.
8 Practical AC Drive Circuitry for LEDs.
Power Factor Correction.
Ripple Current Effects on LEDs.
UL, Energy Star, and All That.
9 Practical System Design With LEDs.
Getting the Light Out.
LEDs in Harsh Environments.
Designing With the Next Generation LED in Mind.
10 Practical Examples.
Example: Designing an LED Flashlight.
Example: Designing a USB Light.
Example: Designing an Automobile Taillight.
Example: Designing an LED Light Bulb.
11 Practical Measurement of LEDs and Lighting.
Measuring Light Output.
LED Measurement Standards.
Measuring LED Temperature.
Measuring Thermal Resistance.
Measuring Power, Power Factor, and Efficiency.
Accelerated Life Tests.
12 Practical Modeling of LEDs.
Practical Overview of Spice Modeling.
What Not to Do.
What to Do.
Modeling Forward Voltage.
Modeling Optical Output.
Modeling Temperature Effects.
Modeling the Thermal Environment.
A Thermal Transient.
Some Comments on Modeling.
IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering.
CAROL LENK is cofounder and Director of Engineering at SuperBulbs, Inc. She earned a B.S. in electrical engineering from MIT and a master's in math and science education.One of the pioneers in applying LEDs to general lighting, Lenk has five years' experience combining theoretical concepts with practical engineering in fields as diverse as optics, thermal modeling, material science, electronics, and mechanical design, with more than a dozen patents pending, all relating to LED lighting.
“Readers will find practical treatment of specific LED system design from flashlight to light bulb; measurement of LED power, efficiency, and operating characteristics; accelerated life testing; computer modeling of LED systems; driver circuitry; and thermal management.” (Electrical Apparatus, 1 August 2012)"LEDs are poised to revolutionize the way we light our world, from the flashiest lights on the Las Vegas strip, to the Shanghai skyline, to the poorest villages with no electric grid connection. Ron and Carol present a great overview of the LED technology at the heart of these new lighting systems, and the thorough review of the considerations that every engineer should know before applying this technology to the myriad of the $100B of lighting applications in our world."
—Dr. Robert C. Walker, Partner, YEBY Associates