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Microsoft Windows Networking Essentials

ISBN: 978-1-118-01685-5
368 pages
May 2011
Microsoft Windows Networking Essentials (1118016858) cover image
The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking

Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed, followed by a concise discussion of the core networking skills you need to have to gain a strong handle on the subject matter. Chapters conclude with review questions and suggested labs so you can measure your level of understanding of the chapter's content.

  • Serves as an ideal resource for gaining a solid understanding of fundamental networking concepts and skills
  • Offers a straightforward and direct approach to networking basics and covers network management tools, TCP/IP, the name resolution process, and network protocols and topologies
  • Reviews all the topics you need to know for taking the MTA 98-366 exam
  • Provides an overview of networking components, discusses connecting computers to a network, and looks at connecting networks with routers

If you're new to IT and interested in entering the IT workforce, then Microsoft Windows Networking Essentials is essential reading.

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Introduction xix

Chapter 1 Introduction to Networking 1

Comparing Logical and Physical Networks 1

Networking Home Computers  2

Networking Small Offices and Home Offices   4

Understanding Local Area Networks 6

Comparing Workgroups and Domains   7

Exploring the Benefits of Domains and Domain Controllers   9

Networking Large Offices 10

Networking Enterprises   12

Understanding Wide Area Networks   12

Understanding Branch Offices 13

Accessing Networks Remotely 14

Understanding Standards Organizations 15

Understanding the Internet Engineering Task Force 16

Understanding the World Wide Web Consortium 17

Understanding the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 18

Understanding the International Telecommunication Union   18

The Essentials and Beyond 18

Chapter 2 Overview of Networking Components 21

Comparing Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Traffic   21

Understanding Unicast Traffic 22

Understanding Broadcast Traffic 23

Understanding Multicast Traffic   25

Understanding Network Hardware 26

Understanding Hubs   27

Understanding Switches   28

Understanding Bridges   29

Understanding Routers   30

Understanding Firewalls   32

Understanding Media 34

Exploring Protocols and Services   36

Exploring Protocols 36

Understanding Services 37

Understanding Basic Topologies   38

The Essentials and Beyond 39

Chapter 3 Understanding the OSI Model 41

Understanding the OSI Model   41

Application Layer 43

Presentation Layer 44

Session Layer   45

Transport Layer   46

Network Layer   48

Data Link Layer   49

Physical Layer 52

Putting It Together   52

Packets and Frames 53

Understanding the TCP/IP Model 55

Mapping Devices on the OSI and TCP Models 56

Physical Layer   58

Data Link Layer 59

Network Layer   59

Application Layer 60

Mapping Protocols on the OSI and TCP/IP Models 60

The Essentials and Beyond 61

Chapter 4 Core TCP/IP Protocols 63

Understanding TCP and UDP 63

Exploring TCP   64

Exploring UDP   66

Exploring Common Protocols   67

Address Resolution Protocol   67

Hypertext Transfer Protocol   68

File Transfer Protocol 69

Trivial File Transfer Protocol   71

Telnet   71

Remote Desktop Services 71

Secure Sockets Layer 72

Transport Layer Security 72

Secure Shell   73

Internet Protocol Security   74

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol 74

Post Office Protocol v3 75

Internet Message Access Protocol 75

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 76

Kerberos   77

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol   77

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol 77

Simple Network Management Protocol   78

Internet Group Multicast Protocol   78

Internet Control Message Protocol 78

Understanding Ports 79

Controlling Port Traffic with a Firewall   81

Mapping Internally Used Ports and Protocols   81

The Essentials and Beyond 83

Chapter 5 Exploring IPv4 85

Exploring the Components of an IPv4 Address 85

Ascertaining the Network ID and Host ID of an IP Address   86

Identifying the Default Gateway   90

Determining Local and Remote Addresses 91

Understanding Classful IP Addresses   92

Identifying Reserved IP Address Ranges 94

Exploring an IPv4 Address in Binary 95

Understanding the Bits of an IP Address   95

Understanding CIDR Notation 98

Masking the IP Address   98

Using Classless IP Addresses   100

Subnetting IPv4 Addresses 100

Determining the Number of Subnet Bits   101

Determining the Number of Hosts in a Network 103

Identifying Local and Remote Addresses   105

Applying Subnetting Knowledge 107

Comparing Manual and Automatic Assignment of IPv4 Addresses 110

Manually Configuring IPv4 110

Using DHCP   110

Understanding APIPA 112

The Essentials and Beyond 113

Chapter 6 Exploring IPv6 117

Exploring IPv6 Addresses 117

Comparing IPv4 Classes and IPv6 Prefixes 118

Understanding Hexadecimal   119

Displaying IPv6 Addresses 120

Comparing IPv6 Transmission Types   121

Understanding the Need for IPv6   122

Understanding Neighbor Discovery   122

Exploring the Components of an IPv6 Address 123

Understanding Global Unicast Addresses   124

Understanding Link-Local Addresses 125

Understanding Unique Local Addresses   126

Understanding the Dual IP Stack 127

Using IPv4-Mapped IPv6 Addresses 127

Understanding IPv4 to IPv6 Tunneling Protocols   128

Comparing Manual and Automatic Assignment of IPv6 129

Manually Configuring IPv6 129

Using DHCPv6   130

The Essentials and Beyond 131

Chapter 7 Connecting Computers to a Network 133

Identifying Potential Problems with Connectivity   133

Understanding EMI   134

Understanding RFI 134

Avoiding Power Spikes 134

Avoiding Interception 137

Preventing Fire Hazards   142

Understanding Cross Talk   142

Exploring Cable Types and Their Characteristics   144

Understanding Twisted Pair 144

Comparing Unshielded and Shielded Twisted Pair 146

Comparing Straight-Through and Crossover Cables  146

Understanding Fiber Optic   147

Understanding Wireless 149

The Essentials and Beyond 150

Chapter 8 Networking Computers with Switches 153

Connecting Multiple Computers   153

Understanding Physical Ports   156

Identifying the Number and Type of Ports   156

Identifying Ports in Drawings 157

Comparing Hubs and Switches 158

Understanding Collision Domains   159

Identifying a Collision Domain with a Hub   159

Identifying Collision Domains with a Switch 160

Mapping Ports to MAC Addresses   161

Comparing Managed and Unmanaged Switches 162

Understanding Unmanaged Switches 163

Understanding Managed Switches   163

Comparing Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches 164

Using a Managed Switch to Create a VLAN   164

Exploring Switch Speeds   167

Identifying Transmission Speeds 168

Understanding the Uplink Port   169

Identifying Backplane Speed 170

Understanding Security Options   170

Understanding Port Security 171

Planning Hardware Redundancy   171

The Essentials and Beyond 172

Chapter 9 Connecting Networks with Routers 175

Connecting Multiple Networks 175

Comparing Hardware Routers and Software Routers   177

Understanding Default Routes 177

Understanding Directly Connected Routes 179

Routing Traffic on a Network 180

Creating Static Routes 180

Configuring Dynamic Routing   182

Understanding the Routing Table  185

Identifying Transmission Speeds   187

Routing Software in Windows Server 2008 188

Adding Routing Services to Windows Server 2008   188

Configuring a Router on Windows Server 2008 190

Understanding Other Routing Protocols 192

Using a DHCP Relay Agent 193

Using an IGMP Router and Proxy   194

Using NAT 195

The Essentials and Beyond 195

Chapter 10 Resolving Names to IP Addresses 197

Exploring Types of Names Used in Networks   197

Understanding Host Names 199

Understanding NetBIOS Names   199

Creating NetBIOS Names from Host Names   202

Viewing and Modifying a Computer Name 203

Exploring Types of Name Resolution 204

Understanding Domain Naming Service   205

Viewing the Host Cache 210

Viewing the Hosts File 211

Understanding WINS 212

Viewing the NetBIOS Cache   213

Understanding the Lmhosts File 214

Understanding Broadcast Name Resolution 214

Understanding Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution 214

Identifying the Steps in Name Resolution 215

Identifying Steps in Host Name Resolution 215

Identifying Steps in NetBIOS Name Resolution 216

The Essentials and Beyond 217

Chapter 11 Understanding Network Security Zones 219

Understanding Risks on the Internet 219

Exploring an Intranet 221

Understanding Network Address Translation 222

Understanding Proxy Servers   224

Understanding Firewalls 227

Exploring the Windows Server 2008 Firewall   229

Identifying a Perimeter Network   232

Understanding a Reverse Proxy Server 233

Understanding Guest Networks 234

Understanding Extranets   235

The Essentials and Beyond 236

Chapter 12 Understanding Wireless Networking 239

Exploring Basic Wireless Components   239

Using Wireless Access Points 240

Naming the Wireless Network 241

Comparing CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA 243

Comparing Networking Standards and Characteristics 243

Comparing FHSS, DSSS, and OFDM   244

IEEE 802 11   245

IEEE 802 11a   246

IEEE 802 11b   247

IEEE 802 11g   247

IEEE 802 11n   248

Comparing Network Security Methods 248

Wired Equivalent Privacy 249

Wi-Fi Protected Access   251

WPA2   252

Using an IEEE 802 1x Authentication Server 253

Using Wireless Networks   254

Home Wireless Networks 255

Wireless Networks in a Business 258

Understanding Point-to-Point Wireless 259

The Essentials and Beyond 261

Chapter 13 Understanding Internet Access Methods and Wide Area Networks 263

Comparing Connectivity Methods Used in Homes and SOHOs 263

Using a Dial-up Connection 264

Connecting with DSL 265

Employing Broadband Cable 266

Connecting via Satellite 267

Comparing Connectivity Methods in Enterprises 269

Exploring Digital Signal Lines   271

Using ISDN 271

Using T1/T3 Lines and E1/E3 Lines   272

Ethernet WAN   273

Exploring Remote Access Services   273

Connecting to RAS via Dial-up 274

Connecting to RAS via a VPN   276

Comparing Client VPNs with Gateway VPNs   278

Adding Remote Access Services to Windows Server 2008 278

Using RADIUS 279

The Essentials and Beyond 280

Chapter 14 Troubleshooting TCP/IP 283

Using the Command Prompt   283

Getting Help at the Command Prompt 284

Using Switches 285

Understanding Case Sensitivity 285

Checking the TCP/IP Configuration with ipconfig 287

Troubleshooting Connectivity with ping 291

Identifying Routers with tracert 295

Verifying the Routed Path with pathping   297

Viewing TCP/IP Statistics with netstat   299

Installing Telnet   304

The Essentials and Beyond 306

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 309

Chapter 1 309

Chapter 2 310

Chapter 3 310

Chapter 4 311

Chapter 5 312

Chapter 6 312

Chapter 7 313

Chapter 8 314

Chapter 9 314

Chapter 10 315

Chapter 11 316

Chapter 12 316

Chapter 13 317

Chapter 14 317

Appendix B Microsoft’s Certification Program 319

Certification Objectives Map   320

Index 325

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Darril Gibson, MCSE, MCITP, ITIL v3, Security+, CISSP, is the CEO of Security Consulting and Training, LLC. A Microsoft Certified Trainer since August 1999, Darril regularly teaches, writes, and consults on a wide variety of security and technical topics. He has authored, coauthored, or contributed to 14 books on a wide range of topics that include Windows Server, Windows 7, SQL Server, and IT security.

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Download TitleSizeDownload
Appendix C: Answers to Additional Exercises 61.70 KB Click to Download
Appendix D: Optional Lab 3.39 MB Click to Download
Glossary 427.99 KB Click to Download
Corrected Figure 5.11: Determining the network ID of 192.168.1.65 74.06 KB Click to Download
Corrected graphic: Solution to IP Subnetting Challenge on page 113 119.30 KB Click to Download
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Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
5 94 Text correction: Error in Figure 5.5
Class C Adresses, Host ID should read 8 Bits
1/4/12 1st
5 102 Text correction: Errors in Figure 5.8
The header of the third column, "Subnet Values" should read "Subnet ID".

In the column headed "Four IP Ranges", the second and third entries are incorect.
"192.168.1.65-127" should read "192.168.1.65-126"
and "192.168.1.129-191" should read "192.168.1.129-190"

A fifth column should be shown to the right of "Four IP Ranges" with the header "Broadcast Address" and containing the following values:
192.168.1.63
192.168.1.127
192.168.1.191
192.168.1.255
4/30/13 1st & 2nd
5 103 Text correction: Errors in Figure 5.9
Under Subnet B, the range "192.168.1.65 to 192.168.1.127" should read "192.168.1.65 to 192.168.1.126"

Under Subnet C, The Network ID should read "192.168.1.128 / 26"
and the range "192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.191" should read "192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.190"

Under Subnet D, the Network ID should read "192.168.1.192 / 26"
2/7/14 1st & 2nd
5 107 Text correction: Errors in binary, Figure 5.11
In the IP address converted to binary (first string of binary, in red) the last octet is incorrect. "0000 0001" (first two digits in red) should read "0100 0001".

In the binary Network ID, the third octet "0000 0011" is incorrect. It should read "0000 0001".

To download a marked-up copy of the figure indicating these corrections, visit the Downloads tab on this page.
8/22/12 1st
5 107 Error in binary: Subnet Masks in Figures 5.10 and 5.11
The second line of binary in each figure, indicated as Step 2, contains an error. The group of zeroes to the right of the red line should contain six zeroes, not five, as shown. These six zeroes should be grouped 00 0000, with a space separating the first two from the final four zeroes.
6/10/13
5 113 Corrected graphic: Solution to IP Subnetting Challenge
The solution to the IP Subnetting Challenge on page 109, shown in the graphic on page 113, contains a number of errors. To download a corrected version of the graphic (Ch5 Challenge.tif) visit the Downloads tab on this page.
4/30/13 1st & 2nd
7 135-137 Text/Figure corrections: Errors under "Avoiding Power Spikes"
Change the second sentence of first paragraph following the sidebar on page 135 to read "This sine wave cycles at a rate of 60 Hertz (Hz). One Hz is one cycle per second so 60 Hz is 60 cycles per second but only two cycles are shown in the figure."

Change the label on the x-axis (horizontal axis) of Figures 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3 from "Time in seconds" to "Cycles"
8/5/13 1st & 2nd
11 220 Text correction: Error under "Botnets and Malware"
The last sentence of the first paragraph of the sidebar, "Some were less benign..." should read "Some were relatively benign..."
8/5/13 1st & 2nd
313 Text correction: Typo in Answers to Review Questions
In the answers to the Chapter 7 Review Questions, the answer to question 6 refers to "CAT 6E" cable. The second sentence should read "CAT 6A is rated at 10000 Mpbs."
5/15/13
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