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Principles of Electrical Safety

ISBN: 978-1-118-02194-1
416 pages
December 2014, Wiley-IEEE Press
Principles of Electrical Safety (1118021940) cover image
Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series’ of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .
• Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety
• Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body
• Serves as a preparatory guide for today’s practicing engineers
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1 Introduction

2 Mathematics used in Electromagnetism

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Numbers

2.3 Mathematical Operations with Vectors

2.4 Calculus with Vectors – The Gradient

2.5 Divergence, Curl and Stokes’ Theorem

2.6 Maxwell’s Equations

3 Electrical Safety Aspects of the Resistance Property of Materials

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Hazards Caused by Electrical Resistance

3.3 Resistance and Conductance

3.4 Example - trunk of a human body

3.5 Example - limb of a human body

3.6 Power and Energy Flow

3.7 Sheet Resistivity

3.8 Example - square of dry skin

3.9 Spreading Resistance

3.10 Example - circle of dry skin

3.11 Particle Conductivity

3.12 Examples – Potassium, Sodium and Chlorine Ions

3.13  Cable Resistance

4 Capacitance Phenomena

4.1 Fundamentals of Capacitance

4.2 Capacitance and Permittivity

4.3 Capacitance in Electrical Circuits

4.4 Capacitance of Body Parts

4.5 Electrical Hazards of Capacitance

5 Inductance Phenomena

5.1 Inductance in electrical theory

5.2 Inductance of Wires

5.3 Example – Inductance of a Conductor

5.4 Example – Inductance of Trunk and Limb

5.5 Inductors or Reactors

5.6 Skin Effect

5.7  Cable Inductance

5.8  Surge impedance

5.9  Bus Bar Impedance Calculations

6 Circuit model of human body

6.1 Calculation of Electrical Shock Using Circuit Model Of Body

6.2 Frequency Response Of The Human Body

7 Effect of Current on the Human Body

7.1 Introduction to Electrical Shock

7.2 Human and Animal Sensitivities to Electric Current

7.3 Human Body Impedance

7.4 Effects of Various Exposure Conditions

7.5 Current Paths through the Body

7.6 Human Response to Electrical Shock Varies with Exposure Conditions, Current Magnitude and Duration

7.7 Medical imaging and simulations

8 Fundamentals of Ground Grid Design

8.1 Introduction to Ground Grid Design

8.2 Summary of Ground Grid Design Procedures

8.3 Example Design from IEEE Standard 80

9 Safety Aspects of Ground Grid Operation and maintenance

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Effects of High Fault Currents

9.3 Reduction in electrical safety: Increased step and touch potentials

9.4 Damage or failure of grounding equipment

9.5 Recommendations

10 Grounding of Distribution Systems

10.1 Stray Currents in Distribution Systems

10.2 Three Phase Multigrounded Neutral Distribution Line

10.3 Secondary systems: 120/240V Single Phase

10.4 Remediation of Stray Current Problems

10.5 Grounding and Overvoltages in Distribution Systems

10.6 High Resistance Grounding of Distribution Systems

11 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis

11.1 Introduction to Arc Flash Hazards

11.2 Factors affecting the severity of arc flash hazards

11.3 Example Arc Flash Calculations

11.4 Remediation of Arc Flash Hazards

11.5 Coordination of Low Voltage Breaker Instantaneous Trips for Arc Flash Hazard Reduction

11.6 Low voltage transformer secondary arc flash protection using fuses

12 Effect of high fault currents on protection and metering

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Current transformer saturation

12.3 Saturation of Low Ratio CTs

12.3 Effect of high fault currents on coordination

12.4 Effect of high fault currents on coordination

12.5 Protective relay ratings and settings

12.6 Effects of Fault Currents on Protective Relays

12.7 Methods for upgrading protection systems

13 Effects of High Fault Currents on Circuit Breakers

13.1 Insufficient Interrupting Capability

13.2 Air Circuit Breakers

13.3 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

13.4 SF6 Circuit Breakers

13.5 Loss of Interruption Medium

13.6 Interrupting ratings of switching devices.

13.7 Circuit Breakers

13.8 Fuses

13.9 Case Studies

13.10 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers

13.11 Testing of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers

13.12 Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breakers

14 Mechanical forces and Thermal Effects in substation equipment due to high fault currents

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Definitions

14.3 Short circuit mechanical forces on rigid bus bars

14.4 Short circuit thermal effects

14.5 Flexible Conductor Buses

14.6 Force Safety Devices

14.7 Substation Cable and Conductor Systems

14.8 Distribution line conductor motion

14.9 Effects of High Fault Currents on Substation Insulators

14.10 Effects of High Fault Currents on Gas Insulated Substations (GIS)

15 Effect of High Fault Currents on Transmission Lines

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Effect of High Fault Current on Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCI)

15.3 Conductor Motion due to Fault Currents

15.4 Calculation of fault current motion for horizontally spaced conductors

15.5 Effect of conductor shape

15.6 Conductor equations of motion

15.7 Effect of conductor stretch

15.8 Calculation of fault current motion for vertically spaced conductors

15.9 Calculation procedure

15.10 Calculation of tension change with motion

15.11 Calculation of mechanical loading on phase-to-phase spacers

15.12 Effect of Bundle Pinch on Conductors and Spacers

16 Lightning and Surge Protection

16.1 Surge Voltage Sources and Waveshapes

16.2 Surge Propagation, Refraction and Reflection

16.3 Insulation Withstand Characteristics and Protection

16.4 Surge Arrester Characteristics

16.5 Surge Arrester Application


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Peter E. Sutherland serves as lead consultant at GE Energy Services, in Schenectady, New York. He has a PhD in Electric Power Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a well-respected industry expert who has taught several courses on the topic. He is a fellow of IEEE.

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