Principles of Electrical SafetyISBN: 9781118021941
352 pages
November 2014, WileyIEEE Press

• Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety
• Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body
• Serves as a preparatory guide for today’s practicing engineers
Preface
1 Introduction
2 Mathematics used in Electromagnetism
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Numbers
2.3 Mathematical Operations with Vectors
2.4 Calculus with Vectors – The Gradient
2.5 Divergence, Curl and Stokes’ Theorem
2.6 Maxwell’s Equations
3 Electrical Safety Aspects of the Resistance Property of Materials
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Hazards Caused by Electrical Resistance
3.3 Resistance and Conductance
3.4 Example  trunk of a human body
3.5 Example  limb of a human body
3.6 Power and Energy Flow
3.7 Sheet Resistivity
3.8 Example  square of dry skin
3.9 Spreading Resistance
3.10 Example  circle of dry skin
3.11 Particle Conductivity
3.12 Examples – Potassium, Sodium and Chlorine Ions
3.13 Cable Resistance
4 Capacitance Phenomena
4.1 Fundamentals of Capacitance
4.2 Capacitance and Permittivity
4.3 Capacitance in Electrical Circuits
4.4 Capacitance of Body Parts
4.5 Electrical Hazards of Capacitance
5 Inductance Phenomena
5.1 Inductance in electrical theory
5.2 Inductance of Wires
5.3 Example – Inductance of a Conductor
5.4 Example – Inductance of Trunk and Limb
5.5 Inductors or Reactors
5.6 Skin Effect
5.7 Cable Inductance
5.8 Surge impedance
5.9 Bus Bar Impedance Calculations
6 Circuit model of human body
6.1 Calculation of Electrical Shock Using Circuit Model Of Body
6.2 Frequency Response Of The Human Body
7 Effect of Current on the Human Body
7.1 Introduction to Electrical Shock
7.2 Human and Animal Sensitivities to Electric Current
7.3 Human Body Impedance
7.4 Effects of Various Exposure Conditions
7.5 Current Paths through the Body
7.6 Human Response to Electrical Shock Varies with Exposure Conditions, Current Magnitude and Duration
7.7 Medical imaging and simulations
8 Fundamentals of Ground Grid Design
8.1 Introduction to Ground Grid Design
8.2 Summary of Ground Grid Design Procedures
8.3 Example Design from IEEE Standard 80
9 Safety Aspects of Ground Grid Operation and maintenance
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Effects of High Fault Currents
9.3 Reduction in electrical safety: Increased step and touch potentials
9.4 Damage or failure of grounding equipment
9.5 Recommendations
10 Grounding of Distribution Systems
10.1 Stray Currents in Distribution Systems
10.2 Three Phase Multigrounded Neutral Distribution Line
10.3 Secondary systems: 120/240V Single Phase
10.4 Remediation of Stray Current Problems
10.5 Grounding and Overvoltages in Distribution Systems
10.6 High Resistance Grounding of Distribution Systems
11 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis
11.1 Introduction to Arc Flash Hazards
11.2 Factors affecting the severity of arc flash hazards
11.3 Example Arc Flash Calculations
11.4 Remediation of Arc Flash Hazards
11.5 Coordination of Low Voltage Breaker Instantaneous Trips for Arc Flash Hazard Reduction
11.6 Low voltage transformer secondary arc flash protection using fuses
12 Effect of high fault currents on protection and metering
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Current transformer saturation
12.3 Saturation of Low Ratio CTs
12.3 Effect of high fault currents on coordination
12.4 Effect of high fault currents on coordination
12.5 Protective relay ratings and settings
12.6 Effects of Fault Currents on Protective Relays
12.7 Methods for upgrading protection systems
13 Effects of High Fault Currents on Circuit Breakers
13.1 Insufficient Interrupting Capability
13.2 Air Circuit Breakers
13.3 Vacuum Circuit Breakers
13.4 SF6 Circuit Breakers
13.5 Loss of Interruption Medium
13.6 Interrupting ratings of switching devices.
13.7 Circuit Breakers
13.8 Fuses
13.9 Case Studies
13.10 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers
13.11 Testing of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers
13.12 Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breakers
14 Mechanical forces and Thermal Effects in substation equipment due to high fault currents
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Definitions
14.3 Short circuit mechanical forces on rigid bus bars
14.4 Short circuit thermal effects
14.5 Flexible Conductor Buses
14.6 Force Safety Devices
14.7 Substation Cable and Conductor Systems
14.8 Distribution line conductor motion
14.9 Effects of High Fault Currents on Substation Insulators
14.10 Effects of High Fault Currents on Gas Insulated Substations (GIS)
15 Effect of High Fault Currents on Transmission Lines
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Effect of High Fault Current on NonCeramic Insulators (NCI)
15.3 Conductor Motion due to Fault Currents
15.4 Calculation of fault current motion for horizontally spaced conductors
15.5 Effect of conductor shape
15.6 Conductor equations of motion
15.7 Effect of conductor stretch
15.8 Calculation of fault current motion for vertically spaced conductors
15.9 Calculation procedure
15.10 Calculation of tension change with motion
15.11 Calculation of mechanical loading on phasetophase spacers
15.12 Effect of Bundle Pinch on Conductors and Spacers
16 Lightning and Surge Protection
16.1 Surge Voltage Sources and Waveshapes
16.2 Surge Propagation, Refraction and Reflection
16.3 Insulation Withstand Characteristics and Protection
16.4 Surge Arrester Characteristics
16.5 Surge Arrester Application
References