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Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, 6th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-02202-3
648 pages
August 2012, ©2013
Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, 6th Edition (1118022025) cover image

The most frequently cited, widely used, and critically acclaimed text on multicultural counseling

In addition to significant revisions and updates reflecting changes in the field, Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition features new chapters on:

  • Multicultural counseling competence for minority mental health professionals
  • Multicultural evidence-based practice
  • Culturally competent assessment
  • Poverty and counseling

Filled with numerous examples, authentic vignettes, and practical case studies, Counseling the Culturally Diverse, Sixth Edition remains the best source of real-world multicultural counseling preparation for students and an influential guide for professionals.

"This edition adds the latest hot-button issues in the multicultural world .... Everything you ever wanted to know about multicultural counseling is included in this edition. It continues to be the standard for any mental health professional treating persons from racial/ethnic minority populations .... It is authoritative, illuminating, and clinically compelling."
—Melba Vasquez, PhD, ABPP, Past President, of the American Psychological Association; independent practice, Austin, Texas

"Counseling the Culturally Diverse, Sixth Edition is a phenomenal piece of work that is comprehensive in scope, penetrating in its insights, and pragmatic in the way it teaches the reader how to navigate the pathways of culture."
—Thomas A. Parham, PhD, Vice Chancellor, Student Affairs, University of California, Irvine Distinguished Psychologist, Association of Black Psychologists

"Counseling the Culturally Diverse continues its tradition of defining the field and charting a proactive course for training a new decade of counselors and therapists for culturally competent practice in our increasingly culturally diverse and globally interconnected society. If only one book was to be read in an entire master's or doctoral program in counseling or psychology, it should be Counseling the Culturally Diverse."
—Joseph G. Ponterotto, PhD, Professor, Fordham University, and practicing multicultural psychologist

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Preface xi

About the Authors xvii

SECTION ONE

The Multiple Dimensions of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy 1

PART I THE AFFECTIVE AND CONCEPTUAL DIMENSIONS OF

MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING/THERAPY 3

Chapter 1 The Multicultural Journey to Cultural Competence: Personal Narratives 5

My Personal and Professional Journey as a White Person: Reactions to Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice 8

Mark S. Kiselica

My Personal and Professional Journey as a Racial and Ethnic Minority Individual: Reactions to Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice 16

Le Ondra Clark

My Personal and Professional Journey as a Person of Color: The Heart and Soul of Counseling the Culturally Diverse 23

Derald Wing Sue

Implications for Clinical Practice 30

Chapter 2 The Superordinate Nature of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy 33

Theme 1: Cultural Universality Versus Cultural Relativism 35

Theme 2: The Emotional Consequences of Race 36

Theme 3: The Inclusive or Exclusive Nature of Multiculturalism 37

Theme 4: The Sociopolitical Nature of Counseling/Therapy 38

Theme 5: The Nature of Multicultural Counseling Competence 38

A Tripartite Framework for Understanding the Multiple Dimensions of Identity 40

Individual and Universal Biases in Psychology and Mental Health 44

The Impact of Group Identities on Counseling and Psychotherapy 45

What Is Multicultural Counseling/Therapy? 46

What Is Cultural Competence? 47

Multidimensional Model of Cultural Competence in Counseling 52

Implications for Clinical Practice 55

Chapter 3 Multicultural Counseling Competence for Minority Group Counselors/Therapists 57

Minority Group Counselors Working with Majority and Minority Group Clients 60

The Politics of Interethnic and Interracial Bias and Discrimination 62

The Historical and Political Relationships Between Groups of Color 65

Cultural Differences in Values and Perspectives Between Racial/Ethnic Groups 69

Counselors of Color and Dyadic Combinations with White Clients and Clients of Color: Situational Examples 73

Conclusions 83

Implications for Clinical Practice 83

PART II THE POLITICAL DIMENSIONS OF MENTAL

HEALTH PRACTICE 87

Chapter 4 The Politics of Counseling and Psychotherapy: Social Justice in Counseling 89

The Education and Training of Mental Health Professionals 91

Definitions of Mental Health 93

Counseling and Mental Health Literature 97

Need to Treat Social Problems—Social Justice Counseling 102

Social Justice Counseling 108

Implications for Clinical Practice 112

Chapter 5 Systemic Oppression: Trust, Mistrust, Credibility, and Worldviews 115

Effects of Historical and Current Oppression 120

Credibility and Attractiveness in Multicultural Counseling 129

Formation of Worldviews 139

Implications for Clinical Practice 144

Chapter 6 Microaggressions in Counseling and Psychotherapy 147

Christina M. Capodilupo and Derald Wing Sue

Contemporary Forms of Oppression 150

Implications for Clinical Practice 173

PART III THE PRACTICE DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING/THERAPY 175

Chapter 7 Barriers to Multicultural Counseling and Therapy: Individual and Family Perspectives 177

Characteristics of Counseling/Therapy 181

Generic Characteristics of Counseling/Therapy 181

Culture-Bound Values 185

Class-Bound Values 191

Language Barriers 195

Patterns of “American” Cultural Assumptions and Multicultural

Family Counseling/Therapy 197

Generalizations and Stereotypes: Some Cautions 205

Implications for Clinical Practice 206

Chapter 8 Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategies 209

Communication Styles 213

Sociopolitical Facets of Nonverbal Communication 221

Counseling and Therapy as Communication Style 227

Implications for Clinical Practice 231

Chapter 9 Multicultural Evidence-Based Practice 233

Evidence-Based Practice and Multiculturalism 238

Empirically Supported Treatment 239

Empirically Supported Relationships 243

Evidence-Based Practice and Diversity Issues in Therapy 253

Implications for Clinical Practice 257

Chapter 10 Non-Western Indigenous Methods of Healing: Implications for Counseling and Therapy 259

The Legitimacy of Culture-Bound Syndromes: Nightmare Deaths and the Hmong Sudden Death Phenomenon 261

The Principles of Indigenous Healing 269

Conclusions 281

Implications for Clinical Practice 282

PART IV THE RACIAL/CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT IN MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING AND THERAPY 285

Chapter 11 Racial/Cultural Identity Development in People of Color: Therapeutic Implications 287

Racial/Cultural Identity Development Models 289

A Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model 295

Therapeutic Implications of the R/CID Model 305

Conclusions 309

Implications for Clinical Practice 310

Chapter 12 White Racial Identity Development: Therapeutic Implications 313

What Does It Mean to Be White? 314

The Invisible Whiteness of Being 317

Understanding the Dynamics of Whiteness 318

Models of White Racial Identity Development 320

The Process of White Racial Identity Development: A Descriptive Model 330

Overcoming Personal Racism and Developing a Nonracist

White Identity: Personal Strategies and Actions 335

Implications for Clinical Practice 339

SECTION TWO

Multicultural Counseling and Specific Populations 341

PART V UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 343

Chapter 13 Culturally Competent Assessment 345

David Sue and Diane M. Sue

Therapist Variables Affecting Diagnosis 346

Cultural Competence and Preventing Diagnostic Errors 348

Contextual and Collaborative Assessment 352

Infusing Cultural Competence Into Standard Clinical Assessments 357

Implications for Clinical Practice 361

PART VI COUNSELING AND THERAPY WITH RACIAL/ETHNIC

MINORITY GROUP POPULATIONS 363

Chapter 14 Counseling African Americans 365

Characteristics and Strengths 366

Specific Challenges 374

Implications for Clinical Practice 377

Chapter 15 Counseling American Indians and Alaska Natives 379

Characteristics and Strengths 380

Specific Challenges 383

Implications for Clinical Practice 391

Chapter 16 Counseling Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders 393

Characteristics and Strengths 394

Specific Challenges 401

Implications for Clinical Practice 406

Chapter 17 Counseling Latinos 409

Diane M. Sue and David Sue

Characteristics and Strengths 410

Specific Challenges 417

Implications for Clinical Practice 423

Chapter 18 Counseling Individuals of Multiracial Descent 425

Multiracialism in the United States 426

Specific Challenges 429

A Multiracial Bill of Rights 435

Multiracial Strengths 436

Implications for Clinical Practice 437

PART VII COUNSELING AND SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES INVOLVING RACIAL/ETHNIC POPULATIONS 439

Chapter 19 Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans 441

Characteristics and Strengths 442

Specific Challenges 444

Implications for Clinical Practice 447

Chapter 20 Counseling Jewish Americans 449

Characteristics and Strengths 451

Specific Challenges 452

Implications for Clinical Practice 455

Chapter 21 Counseling Immigrants and Refugees 457

Challenges Facing Immigrants 459

Counseling Refugees 465

Implications for Clinical Practice 469

PART VIII COUNSELING AND THERAPY WITH OTHER MULTICULTURAL POPULATIONS 471

Chapter 22 Counseling LGBT Individuals 473

Understanding Sexual Minorities 474

Specific Challenges 478

Implications for Clinical Practice 484

Chapter 23 Counseling Older Adult Clients 487

Characteristics and Strengths 487

Specific Challenges of Older Adults 491

Implications for Clinical Practice 498

Chapter 24 Counseling Women 501

Diane M. Sue and David Sue

Specific Challenges 502

Embracing Gender Strengths 513

Implications for Clinical Practice 514

Chapter 25 Counseling and Poverty 517

Laura Smith

Characteristics and Strengths 518

Specific Challenges 520

Implications for Clinical Practice 525

Chapter 26 Counseling Persons With Disabilities 527

Understanding Disabilities 528

The Americans with Disabilities Act 533

Specific Challenges 535

Supports for Individuals with Disabilities 538

Counseling Issues with Individuals with Disabilities 539

Implications for Clinical Practice 541

References 543

Author Index 611

Subject Index 621

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DERALD WING SUE, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he also holds a joint appointment with the School of Social Work. He is one of the most cited multicultural scholars in the United States.

DAVID SUE, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Psychology and an associate at the Center for Cross-Cultural Research at Western Washington University in Bellingham, Washington.

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Praise for Counseling the Culturally Diverse, Sixth Edition

"Derald Sue and David Sue have achieved new heights with this most recent edition of their classic text, and they do not disappoint. Paralleling the evolving nature of multiculturalism itself, the book addresses the latest topics critical to the field, and generously expands the rest. The reader is given an opportunity to personally reflect, analyze, and apply material at every turn. Readers will find that this text more than lives up to its great expectations."
Beth A. Durodoye, Ed.D., Professor of Counseling, University of Texas at San Antonio

"With its most recent updates and revisions, Counseling the Culturally Diverse remains as relevant today as its first edition. Sue and Sue have continued to maintain the integrity of the content and continue to expand and include progressing perspectives within the multicultural and social justice literature. Their inclusion of the most up-to-date topical areas in the field, with personal narratives and examples, makes this edition a "comprehensive guide" that provides critical foundational materials, with real world examples and practical ideas for implementation in the counseling and psychotherapy contexts. I have no doubt this 6th edition will remain the most utilized book in classroom settings across the country."
Miguel E. Gallardo, Psy.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, Graduate School of Education and Psychology Pepperdine University

"Sue and Sue, through their text, have found a substantive way to encourage a meaningful dialogue about the role of culture and experience in the counseling process. Their treatment of the contextual uniqueness that clients bring to the counseling relationship will undoubtedly serve to help counseling students and practicing counselors alike to find their sense of self throughout their 'professional journey'."
Thomas J. Hernandez, Ed.D., LMHC Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Counselor Education, The College at Brockport

"Dr. Derald Wing Sue has done it again! This latest installment in the Counseling the Culturally Diverse series is a phenomenal piece of work that is comprehensive in scope, penetrating in its insights, and pragmatic in the way it teaches the reader how to navigate the pathways of culture our discipline and profession struggle so profoundly with. The journey toward developing multicultural understanding and competence is one of the most significant challenges in a professional psychologist and counselor's life. Indeed, the landscape of progress towards a more culturally competent and socially just profession is dotted with stones of stagnation, the rocks of resignation, and the dust of denial about the elements of psychological and counseling instruction and practice that are necessary to master in one's professional growth and development. This text is as good a roadmap as there is in the profession and those who make the choice to not just read the pages of each chapter, but also understand and embrace the principles and practices that are outlined within, will find their journey toward multicultural understanding and competence much more rewarding, enriching, and fulfilling. This book is simply an awesome resource, and I am honored and proud to endorse it!"
Thomas A. Parham, Ph.D., Vice Chancellor Student Affairs, University of California Irvine; Distinguished Psychologist, Association of Black Psychologists

"This expanded and significantly revised 6th edition of the multicultural counseling field's one true classic text, Counseling the Culturally Diverse, continues its tradition of defining the field and charting a proactive course for training a new decade of counselors and therapists for culturally competent practice in our increasingly culturally diverse and globally interconnected society. Topical coverage is state-of-the-art, comprehensive, and in-depth, and the writing throughout the entire text is crisp, clear, and engaging. If only one book was to be read in an entire master's or doctoral program in counseling or psychology, it should be Counseling the Culturally Diverse."
Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D., Professor and Practicing Multicultural Psychologist Fordham University Co-Editor or Co-Author of Handbook of Multicultural Counseling, Handbook of Multicultural Assessment, Handbook of Racial/Ethnic Minority Counseling Research

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“Derald Sue and David Sue have achieved new heights with this most recent edition of their classic text, and they do not disappoint. Paralleling the evolving nature of multiculturalism itself, the book addresses the latest topics critical to the field, and generously expands the rest. The reader is given an opportunity to personally reflect, analyze, and apply material at every turn. Readers will find that this text more than lives up to its great expectations.”

 

Beth A. Durodoye, Ed.D.

Professor of Counseling

University of Texas at San Antonio

 

“With its most recent updates and revisions, Counseling the Culturally Diverse remains as relevant today as its first edition.  Sue and Sue have continued to maintain the integrity of the content and continue to expand and include progressing perspectives within the multicultural and social justice literature.   Their inclusion of the most up-to-date topical areas in the field, with personal narratives and examples, makes this edition a “comprehensive guide” that provides critical foundational materials, with real world examples and practical ideas for implementation in the counseling and psychotherapy contexts.  I have no doubt this 6th edition will remain the most utilized book in classroom settings across the country.”

 

Miguel E. Gallardo, Psy.D.

Associate Professor of Psychology, Graduate School of Education and Psychology

Pepperdine University

 

“Sue and Sue, through their text, have found a substantive way to encourage a meaningful dialogue about the role of culture and experience in the counseling process. Their treatment of the contextual uniqueness that clients bring to the counseling relationship will undoubtedly serve to help counseling students and practicing counselors alike to find their sense of self throughout their ‘professional journey’.”

 

Thomas J. Hernandez, Ed.D.

LMHC Associate Professor and Chair

Department of Counselor Education

The College at Brockport

 

“Dr. Derald Wing Sue has done it again! This latest installment in the Counseling the Culturally Diverse series is a phenomenal piece of work that is comprehensive in scope, penetrating in its insights, and pragmatic in the way it teaches the reader how to navigate the pathways of culture our discipline and profession struggle so profoundly with. The journey toward developing multicultural understanding and competence is one of the most significant challenges in a professional psychologist and counselor’s life. Indeed, the landscape of progress towards a more culturally competent and socially just profession is dotted with stones of stagnation, the rocks of resignation, and the dust of denial about the elements of psychological and counseling instruction and practice that are necessary to master in one’s professional growth and development. This text is as good a roadmap as there is in the profession and those who make the choice to not just read the pages of each chapter, but also understand and embrace the principles and practices that are outlined within, will find their journey toward multicultural understanding and competence much more rewarding, enriching, and fulfilling. This book is simply an awesome resource, and I am honored and proud to endorse it!”

 

Thomas A. Parham, Ph.D.

Vice Chancellor Student Affairs

University of California Irvine;

Distinguished Psychologist, Association of Black Psychologists

 

“This expanded and significantly revised 6th edition of the multicultural counseling field’s one true classic text, Counseling the Culturally Diverse, continues its tradition of defining the field and charting a proactive course for training a new decade of counselors and therapists for culturally competent practice in our increasingly culturally diverse and globally interconnected society.  Topical coverage is state-of-the-art, comprehensive, and in-depth, and the writing throughout the entire text is crisp, clear, and engaging.  If only one book was to be read in an entire master’s or doctoral program in counseling or psychology, it should be Counseling the Culturally Diverse.”

 

Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D.

Professor and Practicing Multicultural Psychologist

Fordham University

Co-Editor or Co-Author of Handbook of Multicultural Counseling, Handbook of Multicultural Assessment, Handbook of Racial/Ethnic Minority Counseling Research

 

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Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition
—Instructor's resources, posted to companion site, consisting of:
  1. Test Bank (also available on Respondus)
  2. PowerPoint Slides per chapter that can be downloaded and adapted for instructor needs
  3. Transition Notes
  4. Instructor's Manual

The Instructor's Manual will include the following:

  • Detailed chapter outline providing a brief commentary/description for main heads and two levels of subheadings for each chapter.
  • Lecture Openers/Extenders
  • 10 Discussion questions per chapter
  • A list of Key Terms and Concepts per chapter
  • Suggested in and/or Out-of-Class Activities
  • 5-10 relevant URLs per chapter        
  • 5-10 additional readings per chapter
  • 5 Essay questions per chapter
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Students Resources
Wiley Student Companion Site
Student's Resources
Student's Resources consisting of: PowerPoint Slides per chapter
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