Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 3rd EditionISBN: 9781118024294
680 pages
June 2013, WileyIEEE Press

Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade.
Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, this volume goes a step further, introducing new material relevant to machine design along with numerous techniques for making the derivation of equations more direct and easy to use.
Coverage includes:
 Completely new chapters on winding functions and machine design that add a significant dimension not found in any other text
 A new formulation of machine equations for improving analysis and modeling of machines coupled to power electronic circuits
 Simplified techniques throughout, from the derivation of torque equations and synchronous machine analysis to the analysis of unbalanced operation
 A unique generalized approach to machine parameters identification
A firstrate resource for engineers wishing to master cuttingedge techniques for machine analysis, Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems is also a highly useful guide for students in the field.
1 THEORY OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION 1
1.1. Introduction 1
1.2. Magnetically Coupled Circuits 1
1.3. Electromechanical Energy Conversion 12
1.4. Elementary ac Machines 35
2 DISTRIBUTED WINDINGS IN AC MACHINERY 53
2.1. Introduction 53
2.2. Describing Distributed Windings 54
2.3. Winding Functions 64
2.4. AirGap Magnetomotive Force 67
2.5. Rotating MMF 71
2.6. Flux Linkage and Inductance 73
2.7. Resistance 76
2.8. Voltage and Flux Linkage Equations for Distributed Winding Machines 77
3 REFERENCEFRAME THEORY 86
3.1. Introduction 86
3.2. Background 87
3.3. Equations of Transformation: Change of Variables 88
3.4. Stationary Circuit Variables Transformed to the Arbitrary Reference Frame 90
3.5. Commonly Used Reference Frames 97
3.6. Transformation of a Balanced Set 98
3.7. Balanced SteadyState Phasor Relationships 99
3.8. Balanced SteadyState Voltage Equations 102
3.9. Variables Observed from Several Frames of Reference 105
3.10. Transformation Between Reference Frames 110
3.11. Specialty Transformations 111
3.12. SpacePhasor Notation 113
4 PERMANENTMAGNET AC MACHINES 121
4.1. Introduction 121
4.2. Voltage and Torque Equations in Machine Variables 122
4.3. Voltage and Torque Equations in Rotor ReferenceFrame Variables 125
4.4. Analysis of SteadyState Operation 127
4.5. Brushless dc Motor 129
4.6. Phase Shifting of Applied Voltages of a PermanentMagnet ac Machine 134
4.7. Control of Stator Currents 138
5 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 142
5.1. Introduction 142
5.2. Voltage Equations in Machine Variables 143
5.3. Torque Equation in Machine Variables 149
5.4. Stator Voltage Equations in Arbitrary ReferenceFrame Variables 149
5.5. Voltage Equations in Rotor ReferenceFrame Variables 151
5.6. Torque Equations in Substitute Variables 157
5.7. Rotor Angle and Angle Between Rotors 158
5.8. Per Unit System 159
5.9. Analysis of SteadyState Operation 160
5.10. Stator Currents Positive Out of Machine: Synchronous Generator Operation 171
5.11. Computer Simulation 201
6 SYMMETRICAL INDUCTION MACHINES 215
6.1. Introduction 215
6.2. Voltage Equations in Machine Variables 216
6.3. Torque Equation in Machine Variables 220
6.4. Equations of Transformation for Rotor Circuits 222
6.5. Voltage Equations in Arbitrary ReferenceFrame Variables 224
6.6. Torque Equation in Arbitrary ReferenceFrame Variables 229
6.7. Commonly Used Reference Frames 232
6.8. Per Unit System 233
6.9. Analysis of SteadyState Operation 235
6.10. Free Acceleration Characteristics 244
6.11. Free Acceleration Characteristics Viewed from Various Reference Frames 251
6.12. Dynamic Performance During Sudden Changes in Load Torque 257
6.13. Dynamic Performance During a ThreePhase Fault at the Machine Terminals 260
6.14. Computer Simulation in the Arbitrary Reference Frame 261
7 MACHINE EQUATIONS IN OPERATIONAL IMPEDANCES AND TIME CONSTANTS 271
7.1. Introduction 271
7.2. Park’s Equations in Operational Form 272
7.3. Operational Impedances and G( p) for a Synchronous Machine with Four Rotor Windings 273
7.4. Standard Synchronous Machine Reactances 276
7.5. Standard Synchronous Machine Time Constants 278
7.6. Derived Synchronous Machine Time Constants 278
7.7. Parameters from ShortCircuit Characteristics 283
7.8. Parameters from FrequencyResponse Characteristics 290
8 ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF MACHINE EQUATIONS 299
8.1. Introduction 299
8.2. Machine Equations to Be Linearized 300
8.3. Linearization of Machine Equations 302
8.4. SmallDisplacement Stability: Eigenvalues 308
8.5. Eigenvalues of Typical Induction Machines 309
8.6. Eigenvalues of Typical Synchronous Machines 312
8.7. Neglecting Electric Transients of Stator Voltage Equations 313
8.8. Induction Machine Performance Predicted with Stator Electric Transients Neglected 318
8.9. Synchronous Machine Performance Predicted with Stator Electric Transients Neglected 322
8.10. Detailed Voltage Behind Reactance Model 325
8.11. Reduced Order Voltage Behind Reactance Model 332
9 UNBALANCED OPERATION AND SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MACHINES 336
9.1. Introduction 336
9.2. Symmetrical Component Theory 337
9.3. Symmetrical Component Analysis of Induction Machines 338
9.4. Unbalanced Stator Conditions of Induction Machines: ReferenceFrame Analysis 339
9.5. Typical Unbalanced Stator Conditions of Induction Machines 346
9.6. Unbalanced Rotor Conditions of Induction Machines 351
9.7. Unbalanced Rotor Resistors 354
9.8. SinglePhase Induction Machines 358
9.9. Asynchronous and Unbalanced Operation of Synchronous Machines 368
10 DC MACHINES AND DRIVES 377
10.1. Introduction 377
10.2. Elementary dc Machine 377
10.3. Voltage and Torque Equations 384
10.4. Basic Types of dc Machines 386
10.5. TimeDomain Block Diagrams and State Equations 394
10.6. SolidState Converters for dc Drive Systems 398
10.7. OneQuadrant dc/dc Converter Drive 400
10.8. TwoQuadrant dc/dc Converter Drive 418
10.9. FourQuadrant dc/dc Converter Drive 421
10.10. Machine Control with VoltageControlled dc/dc Converter 423
10.11. Machine Control with CurrentControlled dc/dc Converter 426
11 SEMICONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTERS 434
11.1. Introduction 434
11.2. SinglePhase Load Commutated Converter 434
11.3. ThreePhase Load Commutated Converter 445
11.4. Conclusions and Extensions 456
12 FULLY CONTROLLED THREEPHASE BRIDGE CONVERTERS 460
12.1. Introduction 460
12.2. The ThreePhase Bridge Converter 460
12.3. SixStep Operation 466
12.4. SixStep Modulation 474
12.5. SineTriangle Modulation 477
12.6. Extended SineTriangle Modulation 483
12.7. SpaceVector Modulation 485
12.8. Hysteresis Modulation 489
12.9. Delta Modulation 492
12.10. OpenLoop Voltage and Current Regulation 493
12.11. ClosedLoop Voltage and Current Regulation 495
13 INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 503
13.1. Introduction 503
13.2. VoltsperHertz Control 504
13.3. Constant Slip Current Control 510
13.4. FieldOriented Control 517
13.5. Direct FieldOriented Control 521
13.6. Robust Direct FieldOriented Control 523
13.7. Indirect Rotor FieldOriented Control 528
13.8. Direct Torque Control 532
13.9. Slip Energy Recovery Drives 535
13.10. Conclusions 538
14 PERMANENTMAGNET AC MOTOR DRIVES 541
14.1. Introduction 541
14.2. VoltageSource Inverter Drives 542
14.3. Equivalence of VoltageSource Inverters to an Idealized Source 543
14.4. AverageValue Analysis of VoltageSource Inverter Drives 552
14.5. SteadyState Performance of VoltageSource Inverter Drives 555
14.6. Transient and Dynamic Performance of VoltageSource Inverter Drives 557
14.7. Case Study: VoltageSource InverterBased Speed Control 562
14.8. CurrentRegulated Inverter Drives 567
14.9. Voltage Limitations of CurrentRegulated Inverter Drives 571
14.10. Current Command Synthesis 572
14.11. AverageValue Modeling of CurrentRegulated Inverter Drives 576
14.12. Case Study: CurrentRegulated InverterBased Speed Controller 578
15 INTRODUCTION TO THE DESIGN OF ELECTRIC MACHINERY 583
15.1. Introduction 583
15.2. Machine Geometry 585
15.3. Stator Windings 590
15.4. Material Parameters 593
15.5. Stator Currents and Control Philosophy 596
15.6. Radial Field Analysis 597
15.7. Lumped Parameters 602
15.8. Ferromagnetic Field Analysis 603
15.9. Formulation of Design Problem 609
15.10. Case Study 614
15.11. Extensions 618
Acknowledgments 619
References 620
Problems 621
Appendix A Trigonometric Relations, Constants and Conversion Factors, and Abbreviations 623
A.1. Basic Trigonometric Relations 623
A.2. ThreePhase Trigonometric Relations 624
A.3. Constants and Conversion Factors 624
A.4. Abbreviations 625
Appendix B Carter’s Coeffi cient 626
Appendix C Leakage Inductance 629
References 635
Index 636
PAUL KRAUSE, PhD, is founder of P.C. Krause and Associates. He is the sole author of the first edition of this book, an IEEE Fellow, and a winner of the prestigious Tesla Award. He is also the coauthor of Electromechanical Motion Devices, Second Edition, from WileyIEEE Press.
OLEG WASYNCZUK, PhD, is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University. He is a Fellow of IEEE, an awardwinning author of numerous papers, and is coauthor of Electromechanical Motion Devices, Second Edition, from WileyIEEE Press.
SCOTT SUDHOFF, PhD, is EditorinChief of IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and a Fellow of IEEE. He is also a Professor at Purdue University. He has produced extensive writings in the areas of electric machinery and power electronic converter analysis, simulation, and design.
STEVEN PEKAREK, PhD, is a Fellow of the IEEE and has served on the organizing committee of several conferences focusing on electric machinery and power electronics. He and his students have published many papers in these areas. He presently serves as a faculty member in ECE at Purdue University.