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Light Metals 2011

ISBN: 978-1-118-02935-0
1262 pages
March 2011
Light Metals 2011 (1118029356) cover image


The light metal symposia are a key part of the TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, presenting the most recent developments, discoveries, and practices in primary aluminum science and technology. Publishing the proceedings from these important symposia, the Light Metals Series has become the definitive reference in the field of aluminum production and related light metal technologies. Light Metals 2011 offers a mix of the latest scientific research findings and applied technology, covering alumina and bauxite, aluminum reduction technology, aluminum rolling, cast shop for aluminum production, electrode technology, and furnace efficiency. These proceedings will help you take advantage of the latest technologies in order to produce high-quality materials while cutting costs and improving profitability at the same time.
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Table of Contents


About the Editor.

Program Organizers.

Aluminum Committee.

Alumina and Bauxite.

Bauxite Resources and Utilisation.

New Development Model for Bauxite Deposits (P. Ter Weer).

Study on the Characterization of Marginal Bauxite from Parâ/Brazil (F. Silva, J. Sampaio, M. Medeiros, andF. G arrido).

Resource Utilization of High-sulfur Bauxite of Low-median Grade in Chongqing China (J. Yin, W. Xia, andM. Han).

Development of Bauxite and Alumina Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A. Al-Dubaisi).

Digestion Studies on Central Indian Bauxite (P. Raghavan, N. Kshatriya, and Dasgupta).

Effects of Roasting Pretreatment in Intense Magnetic Field on Digestion Performance of Diasporic Bauxite (Z Ting-an, D. Zhihe, L Guozhi, L. Yan, D. Juan, W. Xiaoxiao, and L. Yan).

Bayer Process I.

Application of Operation Integrity M.anagement in the Alumina Industry (C Suarez, D. Welshons, J. McNerney, andJ. Webb).

Influence of Solid Concentration, Particle Size Distribution, Ph And Temperature on Yield Stress of Bauxite Pulp (C. Barbato, M. Nele, and S. Franca).

A New Method for Removal Organics in the Bayer Process (B. Yingwen, L. Jungi, S. Mingliang, andZ. Fei).

Alunorte Expansion 3 - The New Lines Added to Reach 6.3 Million Tons per Year (D. Khoshneviss, L. Correa, J. Ribeiro Alves Filho, H. Berntsen, andR. Carvalho).

One Green Field Megaton Grade Large Alumina Refinery with Successful Engineering & Operation Experience (L. Xianqing, and Y. Xiaoping).

Advanced Process Control in the Evaporation Unit (C. Kumar, U. Giri, R. Pradhan, T. Banerjee, R. Saha, and P. Pattnaik).

Improvements in Smelter Grade Alumina Quality at Clarendon Alumina Works (R. Shaw, A. Duncan, andM. Crosciale).

Red Mud.

Application of Nanofiltration Technology to Improve Sea Water Neutralization of Bayer Process Residue (K. Taylor, M. Mullett, L. Fergusson, H. Adamson, and J. Wehrli).

Caustic and Alumina Recovery from Bayer Residue (S Gu).

Investigation on Alumina Discharge into the Red Mud Pond at Nalco's Alumina Refinery, Damanjodi, Orissa, India (B. Mohapatra, B. Mishra, and G Mishra).

Production of Ordinary Portland Cement( OPC) from NALCO Red Mud (G Mishra, D. Yadav, M. Alii, and P. Sharma).

Recovery of Metal Values from Red Mud (P. Raghavan, N. Kshatriya, andK. Wawrynink).

Red Mud Flocculants used in the Bayer Process (S. Moffatt, F. Ballentine, andM. Lewellyn).

Reductive Smelting of Greek Bauxite Residues for Iron Production (A. Xenidis, G Zografidis, I. Kotsis, andD. Boufounos).

Precipitation, Calcination and Properties.

Effect of Technological Parameters on PSD of Aluminum Tri-Hydroxide from Seed Precipitation in Seeded Sodium Aluminate Solutions (Y. Wu, L. Mingchun, and Q. Yanping).

Methods to Reduce Operating Costs in Circulating Fluidized Bed Calcination (G Klett, M. Miss alla, B. Reeb, andH. Schmidt).

Pressure Calcination Revisited (F. Williams, and G Misra).

Dynamic Simulation of Gas Suspension Calciner (GSC) for Alumina (B. Raahauge, S. Wind, M. Wu, and T. Jensen).

Physical Simulation and Numerical Simulation of Mixing Performance in the Seed Precipitation Tank with a Improved Intermig Impeller (Z Ting-an, L. Y an, W. Shuchan, Z Hongliang, Z. Chao, Z Qiuyue, D. Zhihe, and L. Guozhi).

Two Perspectives on the Evolution and Future of Alumina (L. Perander, J. Metson, and G Klett).

Significant Improvement of Energy Efficiency at Alunorte's Calcination Facility (M Missalla, H. Schmidt, J. Ribeiro, and R. Wischnewski).

Attrition of Alumina in Smelter Handling and Scrubbing Systems (S. Lindsay).

Energy and Environment.

Perspective on Bayer Process Energy (D. Donaldson).

Optimization of Heat Recovery from the Precipitation Circuit (R. Singh, S. Hial, and M. Simpson).

Alunorte Global Energy Efficiency (A. Monteiro, R. Wischnewski, C. Azevedo, and E. Moraes).

Opportunities for Improved Environmental Control in the Alumina Industry (R. Mimna, J. Kildea, E. Phillips, W, Carlson, B. Reiser, and J. Meier).

Alumina Refinery Wastewater Management: When Zero Discharge Just Isn't Feasible (L. Martin, andS. Howard).

High Purity Alumina Powders Extracted from Aluminum Dross by the Calcining—Leaching Process (L. Qingsheng, Z. Chunming, F. Hui, and X. Jilai).

Effect of Calcium/Aluminium Ratio on MgO Containing Calcium Aluminate Slags (W. Bo, S Hui-Lan, G Dong, and B. Shi-Wen).

Study on Extracting Aluminum Hydroxide from Reduction Slag of Magnesium Smelting by Vacuum Aluminothermic Reduction (W. Yaowu, F. Naixiang, Y. Jing, H. Wenxin, P. Jianping, D. Yuezhong, and W. Zhihui).

Application of Thermo-gravimetric Analysis for Estimation of Tri-hydrate Alumina in Central Indian Bauxites—An Alternative for Classical Techniques (Y. Ramana, andR. Patnaik).

Determination of Oxalate Ion in Bayer Liquor Using Electrochemical Method (S. Turhan, B. Usta, Y. Sahin, and O. Uysal).

Alternative Alumina Sources - Poster Session.

The Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Alumina Leaching from Calcium Aluminate Slag (S. Hui-lan, W. Bo, G Dong, Z. Xue-zheng, and B. Shi-wen).

Theory and Experiment on Cooling Strategy during Seeded Precipitation (Z Liu, W. Chen, and W. Li).

Extraction of Alumina from Red Mud by Divalent Alkaline Earth Metal Soda Ash Sinter Process (S. Meher, A. Rout, and B. Padhi).

Dissolution Kinetics of Silicon from Sintering Red Mud in Pure Water (X. Li, K. Huang, and H Zhu).

The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Leachability of Calcium Aluminate Slags (W. Bo, S. Hui-lan, Z. Xue-zheng, and B. Shi-wen).

Preparing Polymerized Aluminum-ferrum Chloride with Red Mud (L. Guilin, Y. Haiyan, and B. Shiwen).

Adsorption of Polyethylene Glycol at the Interface of Dicalcium Silicate - Sodium Aluminate Solution (Y. Haiyan, X Pan, Z Lu, and T. Di).

Production of Hematite Ore from Red Mud (P. Raghavan, N. Kshatriya, and K Wawrynink).

Aluminum Reduction Technology.

Enviroment- Emissions/ Anode Effect I.

HF Measurements Inside an Aluminium Electrolysis Cell (K. Osen, T Aarhaug, A. Solheim, E. Skybakmoen, and C. Sommerseth).

LasIRTM-R - The New Generation RoHS-Compliant Gas Analyzers Based on Tunable Diode Lasers (J. Gagne, J. Pisano, A. Chanda, G. Mackay, K. Mackay, and P. Bouchard).

Use of Spent Potlining (SPL) in Ferro Silico Manganese Smelting (P. von Krüger).

Reduction of PFC Emissions at Pot Line 70 kA of Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (H. Santos, D. Melo, J. Calixto, J. Santos, and J. Miranda).

Towards Redefining the Alumina Specifications Sheet - The Case of HF Emissions (L Per ander, M. Stam, M. Hyland, and J. Metson).

Design of Experiment to Minimize Fluoride and Particulate Emissions at Alumar (E. Batista, P. Miotto, E. Montoro, and L. Souza).

Innovative Distributed Multi-Pollutant Pot Gas Treatment System (G. Wedde, O. Bjarno, and A. Sorhuus).

Fluoride Emissions Management Guide (FEMG) for Aluminium Smelters (N. Tjahyono, Y. Gao, D. Wong, W. Zhang and M. Taylor).

Enviroment - Emissions/ Anode Effect II.

On Continuous PFC Emission Unrelated to Anode Effects (X. Chen, W. Li, J. Marks, Q. Zhao, J. Yang, S. Qiu, and C. Bayliss).

Monitoring Air Fluoride Concentration around ALU AR Smelter in Puerto Madryn (Chubut Province, Argentina) (J. Zavatti, C. Moreno, J. Lifschitz, and G. Quiroga).

Reduction of Anode Effect Duration in 400kA Prebake Cells (W. Zhang, D. Wong, M. Gilbert, Y. Gao, M. Dorreen, M. Taylor, A. Tabereaux, M. Soffer, X. Sun, C. Hu, X Liang, H. Qin, J. Mao, and X Lin).

Sustainable Anode Effect Based Perfluorocarbon Emission Reduction (N. Dando, L. Sylvain, J. Fleckenstein, C. Kato, V. Van Son, and L. Coleman).

The Initiation, Propagation and Termination of Anode Effects in Hall-Héroult Cells (G. Tarcy, and A. Tabereaux).

Towards Eliminating Anode Effects (A. Al Zarouni, B. Welch, M. Mohamed Al-Jallaf, and A. Kumar).

Correlation between Moisture and HF Formation in the Aluminium Process (C. Sommerseth, K Osen, T Aarhaug, E. Skybakmoen, A. Solheim, C. Rosenkilde, and A. Ratvik).

Particulate Emissions from Electrolysis Cells (H. Gaertner, A. Ratvik, and T. Aarhaug).

Investigation of Solutions to Reduce Fluoride Emissions from Anode Butts and Crust Cover Material (G. Girault, M. F aure, J. Bertolo, S. Massambi, and G. Bertran).

PFC Survey in Some Smelters of China (W. Li, X Chen, Q. Zhao, S. Qiu, and S. Zhang).

Considerations Regarding High Draft Ventilation as an Air Emission Reduction Tool (S. Broek, N. Dando, S. Lindsay, and A. Moras).

Cells Thermal Balance.

Increasing the Power Modulation Window of Aluminium Smelter Pots with Shell Heat Exchanger Technology (P. Lavoie, S. Namboothiri, M. Dorreen, J. Chen, D. Zeigler, and M. Taylor).

New Approaches to Power Modulation at TRIMET Hamburg (T Reek).

Some Aspects of Heat Transfer Between Bath and Sideledge in Aluminium Reduction Cells (A. Solheim).

Towards a Design Tool for Self-heated Cells Producing Liquid Metal by Electrolysis (S. Poizeau, and D. Sadoway).

Heat Recovery from Aluminium Reduction Cells (Y. Ladam, A. Solheim, M. Segatz, and O. Lorentsen).

Effects of Composition and Granulometry on Thermal Conductivity of Anode Cover Materials (H. Wijayaratne, M. Hyland, M. Taylor, A. Grama, and T Groutso).

Restart of 300kA Potlines after 5 Hours Power Failure (X. Zhao, B. Gao, H. Han, J. Liu, J. Xiao, J. Qian, J. Yan, and D. Wang).

Multiblock Monitoring of Aluminum Reduction Cells Performance (J. Tessier, C Duchesne, andG. Tarcy).

Cells Technology, Development and Sustainability.

High Amperage Operation of AP18 pots at Karmoy (M Bugge, H. Haakonsen, O. Kobbeltvedt, and K. Paulsen).

Aluminium Smelter Manufacturing Simulation - Can These Bring Real Cost Savings? (M Meijer).

Simultaneous Preheating and Fast Restart of 50 Aluminium Reduction Cells in an Idled Potline - A New Soft Restart Technique for a Pot Line (A. Mulder, A. Folkers, M. Stam, and M. Taylor).

SWOT Perspectives ofMidagePrebaked Aluminium Smelter (P. Choudhury, and A. Sharma).

Integrated Approach for Safe and Efficient Plant Layout Development (R. Pires, R. Baxter, L. Tikasz, and R. McCulloch).

New Progress on Application of NEUI400kA Family High Energy Efficiency Aluminum Reduction Pot ("HEEP") Technology (D. Lu, J. Qin, Z. Ai, and Y. Ban).

Improving Current Efficiency of Aged Reduction Lines at Aluminium Bahrain (Alba) (A. Ahmed, K. Raghavendra, H Hassan, andK. Ghuloom).

Development of NEUI500kA Family High Energy Efficiency Aluminum Reduction Pot ("HEEP") Technology (D. Lu, Y. Ban, X Qi, J. Mao, Q. Yang, and K Dong).

Cells Process Control.

Current Efficiency for Aluminium Deposition from Molten Cryolite-alumina Electrolytes in a Laboratory Cell (G. Haarberg, J. Armoo, H Gudbrandsen, E. Skybakmoen, A. Solheim, and T Jentoftsen).

Improvement in Cell Equipment and Design.

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom (J. Verreault, R. Gariépy, B. Desgroseilliers, C. Simard, X. Delcorde, C. Turpain, S. Simard, and S. Déry).

Anode Dusting from a Potroom Perspective at Nordural and Correlation with Anode Properties (H. Gudmundsson).

The Application of Continuous Improvement to Aluminium Potline Design and Equipment (W. Paul).

Alcoa STARprobe (X. Wang, B. Hosier, and G. Tarcy).

Active Pot Control using Alcoa STARprobe (X. Wang, G. Tarcy, E. Batista, and G. Wood).

Technology & Equipment for Starting Up & Shutting Down Aluminium Pots under Full Amperage (Y. Tao, L. Meng, C. Bin, and Y. Xiaobing).

Study on Solution of A1203 in Low Temperature Aluminum Electrolyte (H Kan, N. Zhang, and X Wang).

Applications of New Structure Reduction Cell Technology in Chalco's Smelters (F. Liu, S. Gu, J. Wang, andK Yang).

Transport Numbers in the Molten System NaF-KF-AlF3-Al2O3(P. Fellner, J. Hives, and J. Thonstad).

Cells Process Modeling.

Development and Application of an ANSYS Based Thermo-electro-mechanical Collector Bar Slot Design Tool (M Dupuis).

Impact of Amperage Creep on Potroom Busbars and Electrical Insulation: Thermal-Electrical Aspects (A. Schneider, D. Richard, and O. Charette).

Modern Design of Potroom Ventilation (A. Vershenya, U. Shah, S. Broek, T. Plikas, J. Woloshyn, and A. Schneider).

A Preliminary Finite Element Electrochemical Model for Modelling Ionic Species Transport in the Cathode Block of a Hall-Héroult Cell (F. Gagnon, D. Ziegler, and M. Fafard).

CFD Modelling of Alumina Mixing in Aluminium Reduction Cells (Y. Feng, M. Cooksey, and P. Schwarz).

Bubble Transport by Electro-Magnetophoretic Foces at Anode Botttom of Aluminium Cells (V. Bojarevics, and A. Roy).

Anodic Voltage Oscillations in Hall-Héroult Cells (K. Einarsrud, and E. Sandnes).

Energy Savings by Cell Design Improvements.

Electrical Conductivity of the KF-NaF- A1F3 Molten System at Low Cryolite Ratio with CaF2 Additions (A. Redkin, A. Dedyukhin, A. Apisarov, P. Tin'ghaev, and Y. Zaikov).

Study of ACD Model and Energy Consumption in Aluminum Reduction Cells (T. Yingfu, and W. Hang).

Modeling of Energy Savings by Using Cathode Design and Inserts (R. von Kaenel, andJ. Antille).

Experimental Investigation of Single Bubble Characteristics in a Cold Model of a Hall-Héroult Electrolytic Cell (S. Das, Y. Morsi, G Brooks, W. Yang, andJ. Chen).

Large Gas Bubbles under the Anodes of Aluminum Electrolysis Cells (A. Caboussat, L. Kiss, J. Rappaz, K. Vékony, A. Perron, S. Renaudier, and O. Martin).

Initiatives to Reduction of Aluminum Potline Energy Consumption Alcoa Poços de Caldas/Brazil (A. Abreu, M. Salles, and C. Kato).

Overview of High-Efficiency Energy Saving for Aluminium Reduction Cell (X. Canming, and Y. Xiaobing).

Cell Voltage Noise Reduction Based on Wavelet in Aluminum Reduction Cell (B. Li, J. Chen, X Zhai, S. Sun, and G. Tu).

Poster Session.

Human Factors in Operational and Control Decision Making in Aluminium Smelters (Y. Gao, M. Taylor, J. Chen, and M. Hautus).

Aluminum Rolling.

Session I.

An Investigation of Deformation Behavior of Bimetal Clad Sheets by Asymmetrical Rolling at Room Temperature (L. Xiaobing, Z Guoyin, and D. Qiang).

Coil Build Up Compensation during Cold Rolling to Improve Off-line Flatness (L. Almeida Neto, and T. Ayhan).

Through Process Effects on Final Al-sheet Flatness (S. Neumann, andK. Karhausen).

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production.

Casthouse Productivity and Safety.

New Casthouse Smelter Layout for the Production of Small Non-Alloyed Ingots: Three Furnaces/Two Lines (J. Berlioux, A. Bourgier, and J. Baudrenghien).

Use of Process Simulation to Design a Billet Casthouse (G. Jaouen).

Optimizing Scrap Reuse as a Key Element in Efficient Aluminium Cast Houses (T. Schmidt, J. Migchielsen, D. Ing, and K Grab).

Implementation of an Effective Energy Management Program Supported by a Case Study (R. Courchée).

Molten Metal Safety Approach through a Network (C. Pluchon, B. Hannart, L Jouet-Fastre, J. Mathieu, R. Wood, J. Riquet, F. Fehrenbach, G. Ranaud, M. Bertherat, and J. Hennings).

Improved Monolithic Materials for Lining Aluminum Holding & Melting Furnaces (A. Wynn, J. Coppack, T. Steele, and K. Moody).

Direct Chill Casting.

Cold Cracking during Direct-chill Casting (D. Eskin, M. Lalpoor, and L. Katgerman).

Surface Defects Structures on Direct Chill Cast 6xxx Aluminium Billets (M. Erdegren, and T. Carlberg).

Effect of Cooling Water Quality on Dendrite Arm Spacing of DC Cast Billets (S. Mohapatra, S. Nanda, and A. Palchowdhury).

Mould Wall Heat Flow Mechanism in a DC Casting Mould (A. Prasad, and L Bainbridge).

Productivity Improvements at Direct Chill Casting Unit in Aluminium Bahrain (ALBA) (A. Noor, S. Chateeriji, and A. Ahmed).

The Coupling of Macrosegregation with Grain Nucleation, Growth and Motion in DC Cast Aluminum Alloy Ingots (M. Zaloznik, A. Kumar, H. Combeau, M. Bedel, P. Jarry, and E. Waz).

Investment Casting of Surfaces with Microholes and Their Possible Applications (T. Ivanov, A. Buehrig-Polaczek, U. Vroomen, C. Hartmann, A. Gillner, K Bobzin, J. Holtkamp, N. Bagcivan, and S. Theiss).

Using SEM and EDX for a Simple Differentiation of- and -AlFeSi-Phases in Wrought Aluminum Billets (M Rosefort, C. Matthies, H. Buck, and H. Koch).

Dross Formation, Control and Handling.

Oxidation of AlMg in Dry and Humid Atmospheres (A. Kvithyld, D. Stevens, S. Wilson, and T. Engh).

Study of Early Stage Interaction of Oxygen with Al; Methods, Challenges and Difficulties (B. Fatela, G BrooL·, M. Rhamdhani, J. Taylor, J. Davis, and M. Lowe).

Quality Assessment of Recycled Aluminium (D. Dispinar, A. Kvithyld, and A. Nordmark).

Melt Quality Control.

In-Line Salt-ACD: A Chlorine-Free Technology for Metal Treatment (P. Robichaud, C. Dupuis, A. Mathis, P. Coté, and B. Maltais).

The Effectof TiB2 Granules on Metal Quality (M. MohamedAl-Jallaf, M. Hyland, B. Welch, A. Al Zarouni, and F. Abdullah).

Thermodynamic Analysis of Ti, Zr, V and Cr Impurities in Aluminium Melt (A. Khaliq, M. Rhamdhani, G. BrooL·, andJ. Grandfield).

Current Technologies for the Removal of Iron from Aluminum Alloys (L. Zhang, J. Gao, andL. Damdah).

Electromagnetically Enhanced Filtration of Aluminum Melts (M. Kennedy, S. Akhtar, R. Aune, and J. Bakken).

A Review of the Development of New Filter Technologies Based on the Principle of Multi Stage Filtration With Grain Refiner Added in the Intermediate Stage (J. Courtenay, S. Instone, and F. Reusch).

Wettability of Aluminium with SiC and Graphite in Aluminium Filtration (S. Bao, A. Kvithyld, T. Engh, and M. Tangstad).

Study of Microporosity Formation under Different Pouring Conditions in A356 Aluminum Alloy Castings (L. Yao, S. Cocker oft, D. Maijer, J. Zhu, and C Reilly).

Grain Refinement Alloying, Solidification and Casting.

Hycast Gas Cushion (GC) Billet Casting System (7. Steen, and A. Hakonsen).

Studies of Fluid Flow and Meniscus Behavior during Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) of Thin Metallic Strips (D. Li, J. Gill, M. Isac, and R. Guthrie).

Development of Alba High Speed Alloy (A. Ahmed, J. Hassan, G. Martin, andK Ghosh).

Dissolution Studies of Si Metal in Liquid Al under Different Forced Convection Conditions (M. Seyed Ahmadi, S. Argyropoulos, M. Bussmann, and D. Doutre).

Modification and Grain Refinement of Eutectics to Improve Performance of Al-Si Castings (M. Felberbaum, and A. Dahle).

Production of Al-Ti-C Grain Refiners with the Addition of Elemental Carbon and K2TiF6(F. Toptan, I. Kerti, S. Daglilar, A. Sagin, O. Karadeniz, and A. Ambarkutuk).

Effect of Mechanical Vibrations on Microstructure Refinement of Al-7mass% Si Alloys (T. Tamura, T. Matsuki, and K. Miwa).

Predicting the Response of Aluminum Casting Alloys to Heat Treatment (C Wu, and M. Makhlouf).

Electrode Technology for Aluminium Production.

Anode Baking.

Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level - Application and Reproducibility of L-sub-c Based Methods (S. Rorvik, L. Lossius, and A. Ratvik).

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a Temporary Crossover (E. Cobo, L. Beltramino, J. Artola, J. Rey Boero, P. Roy, and J. Bigot).

Recent Developments in Anode Baking Furnace Design (D. Severo, V. Gusberti, P. Sulger, F. Keller, and M. Meier).

Sohar Aluminium's Anode Baking Furnace Operation (S. AlHosni, J. Chandler, O. Forato, F. Morales, C. Jonville, and J. Bigot).

Meeting the Challenge of Increasing Anode Baking Furnace Productivity (F. Ordronneau, M. Gendre, L. Pomerleau, N. Backhouse, A. Berkovich, and X. Huang).

Wireless Communication for Secured Firing and Control Systems in Anode Baking Furnaces (N. Fiot, and C. Coulaud).

Full Control of Pitch Burn during Baking: It's Impact on Anode Quality, Operational Safety, Maintenance and Operational Costs (D. Maiwald, D. Di Lisa, and P. Mnikoleiski).

High Performance Sealing for Anode Baking Furnaces (P. Mahieu, S. Neple, N. Fiot, I. Ofico, and M. Eufrasio).

Anode Raw Materials and Green Carbon.

Property Profile of Lab-scale Anodes Produced with 180°C Mettler Coal Tar Pitch (W. Boenigk, C Boltersdorf, F. Lindner, and J. Stiegert).

Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners (L. Edwards).

Sub-surface Carbon Dioxide Reaction in Anodes (D. Ziegler).

Paste Quality Improvements at Alcoa Poços de Caldas Plant (B. Vry, C Kato, J. Araujo, F. Ribeiro, and A. Abreu).

Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract (2) - Effects of the Properties of Hypercoal-coke on the Preformance of Prebaked Anodes (M. Hamaguchi, N. Okuyama, N. Komatsu, J. Koide, K. Kano, T. Shishido, K. Sakai, and T. Inoue).

The New Generation of Vertical Shaft Calciner Technology (J. Zhao, Q. Zhao, and Q. Zhao).

Petroleum Coke VBD.

Historical and Future Challenges with the Vibrated Bulk Density Test Methods for Determining Porosity of Calcined Petroleum Coke (J. Panchal, M. Wyborney, andJ. Rolle).

Prediction of Calcined Coke Bulk Density (M. Dion, H. Darmstadt, N. Backhouse, F. Cannava, and M. Canada).

Calcined Coke Particle Size and Crushing Steps Affect Its VBD Result (F. Cannava, M. Canada, andB. Vitchus).

Bulk Density - Overview of ASTM and ISO Methods with Examples of Between Laboratory Comparisons (L. Lossius, B. Spencer, and H. Oye).

Improving the Repeatability of Coke Bulk Density Testing (L. Edwards, M. Lubin, andJ. Marino).

ASTM D7454 Vibrated Bulk Density Method - Principles and Limitations (F. Laplante, andL. Duchesneau).

Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of Calcined Petroleum Coke and Implications of Changes in the ASTM Method D4292 (B. Spencer, L. Johnsen, D. Kirkpatrick, D. Clark, and M. Baudino).

Anode Quality and Rodding Processes.

Multivariate Monitoring of the Prebaked Anode Manufacturing Process and Anode Quality (J. Lauzon-Gauthier, C Duchesne, J. Tessier, K. Cantin, and I. Petit).

Characterization of a Full Scale Prebaked Carbon Anode using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (D. Picard, H. Alamdari, D. Ziegler, P. St-Arnaud, and M. Fafard).

FEM Analysis of the Anode Connection in Aluminium Reduction Cells (S. Beier, J. Chen, M. F afard, and H. Fortin).

Development of Industrial Benchmark Finite Element Analysis Model to Study Energy Efficient Electrical Connections for Primary Aluminium Smelters (D. Molenaar, K. Ding, and A. Kapoor).

Real Time Temperature Distribution During Sealing Process and Room Temperature Air Gap Measurements of a Hall-Héroult Cell Anode (O. Trempe, D. Larouche, D. Ziegler, M. Guillot, andM. Fafard).

Effects of High Temperatures and Pressures on Cathode and Anode Interfaces in a Hall-Heroult Electrolytic Cell (L. St-Georges, L. Kiss, J. Bouchard, M. Rouleau, and D. Marceau).

New Apparatus for Characterizing Electrical Contact Resistance and Thermal Contact Conductance (N. Kandev, H. Fortin, S. Chénard, G. Gauvin, M. Martin, andM. Fafard).

Carbon Anode Modeling for Electric Energy Savings in the Aluminium Reduction Cell (D. Andersen, and Z Zhang).

Cathode Design and Operation.

Preheating Collector Bars and Cathode Blocks Prior to Rodding with Cast Iron by Passing an AC Current Through the Collector Bars (E. Jensen, H Bjornstad, andJ. Hansen).

Development and Application of an Energy Saving Technology for Aluminum Reduction Cells (P. Jianping, F. Naixiang, F. Shaofeng, L. Jun, and Q. Xiquan).

Study of Electromagnetic Field in 300kA Aluminium Reduction Cells with Innovation Cathode Structure (B. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, F. Wang, andN. Feng).

Evaluation of the Thermophysical Properties of Silicon Carbide, Graphitic and Graphitized Carbon Sidewall Lining Materials Used in Aluminium Reduction Cell in Function of Temperature (A. Khatun, andM. Desilets).

Advanced Numerical Simulation of the Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Behaviour of Hall-Héroult Cells under Electrical Preheating (D. Marceau, S. Pilote, M. Désilets, L. Hacini, J. Bilodeau, and Y. Caratini).

Influence of Technological and Constructive Parameters on the Integrity of the Bottom of Aluminum Reduction Cells during Flame Preheating (A. Arkhipov, G. Arkhipov, and V. Pingin).

Creep Behaviors of Industrial Graphitic and Graphitized Cathodes during Modified Rapoport Tests (W. Wang, J. Xue, J. Feng, Q. Liu, L. Zhan, H. He, andJ. Zhu).

Cathode Materials and Wear.

Measurement of Cathode Surface Wear Profiles by Laser Scanning (E. Skybakmoen, S. Itervik, A. Solheim, K. Holm, P. Tiefenbach, and O. Ostrem).

Coke Selection Criteria for Abrasion Resistant Graphitized Cathodes (R. Perruchoud, W. Fischer, M. Meier, and U. Mannwei).

Determination of the Effect of Pitch-Impregnation on Cathode Erosion Rate (P. Patel, Y. Sato, and P. Lavoie).

Simplifying Protection System to Prolong Cell Life (M. Mohamed Al-Jallaf, M. Hyland, B. Welch, and A. AlZarouni).

Aluminate Spinels as Sidewall Linings for Aluminum Smelters (X. Yan, R. Mukhlis, M. Rhamdhani, and G. Brooks).

A New Ramming Paste with Improved Potlining Working Conditions (B. Aliard, R. Paulus, and G. Billat).

Towards a Better Understanding of Carburation Phenomenon (M. Lebeuf, M Coulombe, B. Allard, and G. Soucy).

Characterization of Sodium and Fluorides Penetration into Carbon Cathodes by Image Analysis and SEM-EDS Techniques (Y. Gao, J. Xue, J. Zhu, K. Jiao, and G. Jiang).

Inert Anodes and Wettable Cathodes.

Pressureless Sintering of TiB2-based Composites using Ti and Fe Additives for Development of Wettable Cathodes (H. Heidari, H. Alamdari, D. Dubé, andR. Schulz).

Furan Resin and Pitch Blends as Binders for TiB2-C Cathodes(H. Zhang, J. Hou, X. Lü, Y. Lai, andJ. Li).

Influence of Cobalt Additions on Electrochemical Behaviour of Ni-Fe-Based Anodes for Aluminium Electrowinning (V. Singleton, B. Welch, andM. Skyllas-Kazacos).

Effects of the Additive Zr02 on Properties of Nickel Ferrite Cermet Inert Anode (X. Zhang, G. Yao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, andZ. Zhang).

Effect of Sintering Atmosphere on Phase Composition and Mechanical Property of 5Cu/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) Cermet Anodes for Aluminum Electrolysis (Z Zou, C. Wei, Z Tian, K. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Lai, andJ. Li).

Poster Session - Electrode.

Influence of Ultrafine Powder on the Properties of Carbon Anode Used in Aluminum Electrolysis (X. Jin, D. Songyun, L. Jie, L. Yanqing, andL. Yexiang).

Preparation NiFe2O4 Matrix Inert Anode Used in Aluminum Electrolysis by Adding Nanopowder(Z Zhang, G. Yao, Y. Liu, andX Zhang).

Cold Water Model Simulation of Aluminum Liquid Fluctuations Induced by Anodic Gas in New Tape of Cathode Structure Aluminum Electrolytic Cell (Y. Liu, T. Zhang, Z Dou, H. Wang, G. Lv, Q. Zhao, N. Feng, and J. He).

Effects of Physical Properties of Anode Raw Materials on the Paste Compaction Behavior (K. Azari, H. Ammar, H. Alamdari, D. Picard, M. F afar d, andD. Ziegler).

Furnace Efficiency - Energy and Throughput.

Session I.

Furnaces Designed for Fuel Efficiency (D. White).

Latest Trends in Post Consumer and Light Gauge Scrap Processing to include Problematic Materials such as UBC, Edge Trimming and Loose Swarf (F. Niedermair, and G. Wimroither).

Investigation of Heat Transfer Conditions in a Reverberatory Melting Furnace by Numerical Modeling (A. Buchholz, andJ. Rodseth).

Oxyfuel Optimization using CFD Modeling (T. Niehoff, and S. Viyyuri).

Operational Efficiency Improvements Resulting from Monitoring and Trim of Industrial Combustion Systems (J. Oakes, andD. Bratcher).

New Technology for Electromagnetic Stirring of Aluminum Reverberatory Furnaces (J. Herbert, and A. Peel).

Evaluation of Effects of Stirring in a Melting Furnace for Aluminum (K. Matsuzaki, T. Shimizu, Y. Murakoshi, andK. Takahashi).

Business Analysis of Total Refractory Costs (C. Belt).

Improved Furnace Efficiency through the Use of Refractory Materials (J. Hemrick, A. Rodrigues-Schroer, D. Colavito, andJ. Smith).

Study on the Energy-saving Technology of Chinese Shaft Calciners (G. Lang, C. Bao, S. Gao, R. Logan, Y. Li, andJ. Wu).

Author Index.

Subject Index.

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