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Biomedical Materials and Diagnostic Devices

ISBN: 978-1-118-03014-1
640 pages
October 2012
Biomedical Materials and Diagnostic Devices (1118030141) cover image

The functional materials with the most promising outlook have the ability to precisely adjust the biological phenomenon in a controlled mode. Engineering of advanced bio- materials has found striking applications in used for biomedical and diagnostic device applications, such as cell separation, stem-cell, drug delivery, hyperthermia, automated DNA extraction, gene targeting, resonance imaging, biosensors, tissue engineering and organ regeneration.

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Preface xv

Part I: Biomedical Materials

1. Application of the Collagen as Biomaterials 3
Kwangwoo Nam and Akio Kishida

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Structural Aspect of Native Tissue 5

1.3 Processing of Collagen Matrix 8

1.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 14

2. Biological and Medical Significance of Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Calcium Orthophosphates 19
Sergey V. Dorozhkin

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 General Information on ?Nano? 21

2.3 Micron- and Submicron-Sized Calcium Orthophosphates versus the Nanodimensional Ones 23

2.4 Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Calcium Orthophosphates in Calcified Tissues of Mammals 26

2.5 The Structure of the Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Apatites 28

2.6 Synthesis of the Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Calcium Orthophosphates 34

2.7 Biomedical Applications of the Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Calcium Orthophosphates 47

2.8 Other Applications of the Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Calcium Orthophosphates 58

2.9 Summary and Perspectives 58

2.10 Conclusions 61

3. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Thin Film: From Conventional To Advanced Biomedical and Bioanalytical Applications 101
Wing Cheung MAK

3.1 State-of-the-art LbL Technology 101

3.2 Principle of Biomaterials Based Lbl Architecture 102

3.3 LbL Thin Film for Biomaterials and Biomedical Implantations 103

3.4 LbL Thin Film for Biosensors and Bioassays 105

3.5 LbL Thin Film Architecture on Colloidal Materials 107

3.6 LbL Thin Film for Drug Encapsulation and Delivery 108

3.7 LbL Thin Film Based Micro/Nanoreactor 110

4. Polycaprolactone based Nanobiomaterials 115
Narendra K. Singh and Pralay Maiti

4.1 Introduction 115

4.2 Preparation of Polycaprolactone Nanocomposites 118

4.3 Characterization of Poly(caprolactone) Nanocomposites 119

4.4 Properties 123

4.5 Biocompatibility and Drug Delivery Application 141

4.6 Conclusion 150 Acknowledgement 150

5. Bone Substitute Materials in Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery ? Properties and Use in Clinic 157
Esther M.M. Van Lieshout

5.1 Introduction 158

5.2 Types of Bone Grafts 159

5.3 Bone Substitute Materials 161

5.4 Combinations with Osteogenic and Osteoinductive Materials 171

5.5 Discussion and Conclusion 173

6. Surface Functionalized Hydrogel Nanoparticles 191
Mehrdad Hamidi, Hajar Ashrafi and Amir Azadi

6.1 Hydrogel Nanoparticles 191

6.2 Hydrogel Nanoparticles Based on Chitosan 193

6.3 Hydrogel Nanoparticles Based on Alginate 194

6.4 Hydrogel Nanoparticles Based on Poly(vinyl Alcohol) 195

6.5 Hydrogel Nanoparticles Based on Poly(ethylene Oxide) and Poly(ethyleneimine) 196

6.6 Hydrogel Nanoparticles Based on Poly(vinyl Pyrrolidone) 198

6.7 Hydrogel Nanoparticles Based on Poly-N-Isopropylacrylamide 198

6.8 Smart Hydrogel Nanoparticles 199

6.9 Self-assembled Hydrogel Nanoparticles 200

6.10 Surface Functionalization 201

6.11 Surface Functionalized Hydrogel Nanoparticles 205

Part II: Diagnostic Devices

7. Utility and Potential Application of Nanomaterials in Medicine 215
Ravindra P. Singh, Jeong -Woo Choi, Ashutosh Tiwari and Avinash Chand Pandey

7.1 Introduction 215

7.2 Nanoparticle Coatings 218

7.3 Cyclic Peptides 220

7.4 Dendrimers 221

7.5 Fullerenes/Carbon Nanotubes/Graphene 227

7.6 Functional Drug Carriers 229

7.7 MRI Scanning Nanoparticles 233

7.8 Nanoemulsions 235

7.9 Nanofibers 236

7.10 Nanoshells 239

7.11 Quantum Dots 240

7.12 Nanoimaging 248

7.13 Inorganic Nanoparticles 248

7.14 Conclusion 250

8. Gold Nanoparticle-based Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Applications 261
Ülkü Anik

8.1 Introduction 261

8.2 Electrochemical Biosensors 262

8.3 Conclusion 272

9. Impedimetric DNA Sensing Employing Nanomaterials 277
Manel del Valle and Alessandra Bonanni

9.1 Introduction 277

9.2 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Genosensing 280

9.3 Nanostructured Carbon Used in Impedimetric Genosensors 286

9.4 Nanostructured Gold Used in Impedimetric Genosensors 290

9.5 Quantum Dots for Impedimetric Genosensing 293

9.6 Impedimetric Genosensors for Point-of-Care Diagnosis 293

9.7 Conclusions (Past, Present and Future Perspectives) 294

10. Bionanocomposite Matrices in Electrochemical Biosensors 301
Ashutosh Tiwari, Atul Tiwari

10.1 Introduction 301

10.2 Fabricationof SiO2-CHIT/CNTs Bionanocomposites 303

10.3 Preparation of Bioelectrodes 304

10.4 Characterizations 305

10.5 Electrocatalytic Properties 307

10.6 Photometric Response 315

10.7 Conclusions 316

11. Biosilica? Nanocomposites - Nanobiomaterials for Biomedical Engineering and Sensing Applications 321
Nikos Chaniotakis, Raluca Buiculescu

11.1 Introduction 321

11.2 Silica Polymerization Process 323

11.3 Biocatalytic Formation of Silica 325

11.4 Biosilica Nanotechnology 327

11.5 Applications 328

11.6 Conclusions 334

12. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomaterial-based Highly Sensitive and Selective Medical Devices 337
Bhim Bali Prasad and Mahavir Prasad Tiwari

12.1 Introduction 337

12.2 Molecular Imprinted Polymer Technology 340

12.3 Molecularly Imprinted Nanomaterials 360

12.4 Molecularly Imprinted Nanomaterial-based Sensing Devices 362

12.5 Conclusion 379

13. Immunosensors for Diagnosis of Cardiac Injury 391
Swapneel R. Deshpande, Aswathi Anto Antony, Ashutosh Tiwari, Emilia Wiechec, Ulf Dahlström, Anthony P.F. Turner

13.1 Immunosensor 391

13.2 Myocardial Infarction and Cardiac Biomarkers 392

13.3 Immunosensors for Troponin 399

13.4 Conclusions 404

Part III: Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

14. Ground-Breaking Changes in Mimetic and Novel Nanostructured Composites for Intelligent-, Adaptive- and In vivo-responsive Drug Delivery Therapies 411
Dipak K. Sarker

14. 1 Introduction 411

14.2 Obstacles to the Clinician 420

14.3 Hurdles for the Pharmaceuticist 428

14.4 Nanostructures 431

14.5 Surface Coating 435

14.7 Formulation Conditions and Parameters 439

14.8 Delivery Systems 440

14.9 Evaluation 443

14.10 Conclusions 447

15. Progress of Nanobiomaterials for Theranostic Systems 451
Dipendra Gyawali, Michael Palmer, Richard T. Tran and Jian Yang

15.1 Introduction 451

15.2 Design Concerns for Theranostic Nanosystems 456

15.3 Designing a Smart and Functional Theranostic System 459

15.4 Materials for Theranostic System 462

15.5 Theranostic Systems and Applications 474

15.6 Future Outlook 481

16. Intelligent Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy 493
Mousa Jafari, Bahram Zargar, M. Soltani, D. Nedra Karunaratne, Brian Ingalls, P. Chen

16.1 Introduction 493

16.2 Peptides for Nucleic Acid and Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy 494

16.3 Lipid Carriers 499

16.4 Polymeric Carriers 506

16.5 Bactria Mediated Cancer Therapy 514

16.6 Conclusion 519

Part IV: Tissue Engineering and Organ Regeneration 531

17. The Evolution of Abdominal Wall Reconstruction and the Role of Nonobiotecnology in the Development of Intelligent Abdominal Wall Mesh 533
Cherif Boutros, Hany F. Sobhi and Nader Hanna

17.1 The Complex Structure of the Abdominal Wall 534

17.2 Need for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction 535

17.3 Failure of Primary Repair 535

17.4 Limitations of the Synthetic Meshes 536

17.5 Introduction of Biomaterials To Overcome Synthetic Mesh Limitations 537

17.6 Ideal Material for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction 538

17.7 Role of Bionanotechnology in Providing the

17.7 Future Directions 542

18. Poly(Polyol Sebacate)-based Elastomeric Nanobiomaterials for Soft Tissue Engineering 545
Qizhi Chen

18.1 Introduction 545

18.2 Poly(polyol sebacate) Elastomers 547

18.3 Elastomeric Nanocomposites 562

18.4 Summary 569

19. Electrospun Nanomatrix for Tissue Regeneration 577
Debasish Mondal and Ashutosh Tiwari

19.1 Introduction 577

19.2 Electrosun Nanomatrix 578

19.3 Polymeric Nanomatrices for Tissue Engineering 580

19.4 Biocompatibility of the Nanomatrix 581

19.5 Electrospun Nanomatrices for Tissue Engineering 583

19.6 Status and Prognosis 592

20. Conducting Polymer Composites for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds 597
Yashpal Sharma, Ashutosh Tiwari and Hisatoshi Kobayashi

20.1 Introduction 598

20.3 Synthesis of Conducting Polymers 599

20.4 Application of Conducting Polymer in Tissue Engineering 600

20.5 Polypyrrole 600

20.6 Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) 602

20.7 Polyaniline 603

20.8 Carbon Nanotube 605

20.9 Future Prospects and Conclusions 607

21. Cell Patterning Technologies for Tissue Engineering 611
Azadeh Seidi and Murugan Ramalingam

21.1 Introduction 611

21.2 Patterned Co-culture Techniques 612

21.3 Applications of Co-cultures in Tissue Engineering 618

21.4 Concluding Remarks 619

Acknowledgements 619

References 620

Index 000

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Ashutosh Tiwari is an assistant professor of nanobioelectronics at Biosensors and Bioelectronics Centre, IFM-Linköping University, Sweden, as well as Editor-in-Chief of Advanced Materials Letters. He has published more than 125 articles and patents as well as authored/edited books in the field of materials science and technology.

Murugan Ramalingam is an associate professor of biomaterials and tissue engineering at the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université de Strasbourg (UdS), France. Concurrently, he holds an adjunct associate professorship at Tohoku University, Japan. He has authored more than 125 publications and is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Bionanoscience and Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering.

Hisatoshi Kobayashi is group leader of Biofunctional Materials at Biomaterials Centre, National Institute for Materials Science, Japan. He has published more than 150 publications, books and patents in the field of biomaterials science and technology, as well as edited/authored three books on the advanced state-of-the-art of biomaterials.

Professor Anthony P. F. Turner is currently Head of Division, FM-Linköping University's new Centre for Biosensors and Bioelectronics. His previous thirty-five-year academic career in the United Kingdom culminated in the positions of Principal (Rector) of Cranfield University and Distinguished Professor of Biotechnology. Professor Turner has more than 600 publications and patents in the field of biosensors and biomimetic sensors and is best known for his role in the development of glucose sensors for home-use by people with diabetes. He published the first textbook on Biosensors in 1987 and is Editor-In-Chief of the principal journal in his field, Biosensors & Bioelectronics, which he cofounded in 1985.

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