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Elements of Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-04155-0
360 pages
April 2012, ©2012
Elements of Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Edition (1118041550) cover image

From Reviews of the First Edition:

"This splendid, at times humorous, and reasonably priced little book has much to commend it to undergraduate chemists and to other science students." —J. G. Farmer, University of Edinburgh

"Complex environmental issues are presented in simple terms to help readers grasp the basics and solve relevant problems." —J. Albaiges, University of Barcelona

"The main strength of the book lies in its explanations of the calculation of quantitative relationships. Each chapter includes 15-20 problems that are carefully chosen from a didactic standpoint, for which the reader can find solutions at the end." —D. Lenoir, Institute for Ecological Chemistry

"What drew me to the first edition was the style – the no nonsense, down-to-earth explanations and the practical examples that litter the text. The dry humor expressed in the footnotes is great and reminds me of other classic texts." —T. Clough, Lincoln University

A practical approach to environmental chemistry

Providing readers with the fundamentals of environmental chemistry and a toolbox for putting them into practice, Elements of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition is a concise, accessible, and hands-on volume designed for students and professionals working in the chemical and environmental sciences.

Tutorial in style, this book fully incorporates real-world problems and extensive end-of-chapter problem sets to immerse the reader in the field. Chapters cover mass balance, chemical kinetics, carbon dioxide equilibria, pesticide structures and much more. Extensively revised, updated, and expanded, this Second Edition includes new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and brominated flame retardants. In addition, new practice problems and a helpful tutorial on organic chemistry names and structures have been added to improve both the scope and accessibility of the book.

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1. Simple tool skills 1

1.1 Unit conversions 1

1.2 Estimating 5

1.3 Ideal gas law 9

1.4 Stoichiometry 14

1.5 Problem set 16

2. Mass balance and kinetics 23

2.1 Steady-state mass balance 23

2.2 Non-steady-state mass balance 42

2.3 Chemical kinetics 59

2.4 Problem set 70

3. Atmospheric chemistry 77

3.1 Atmospheric structure 77

3.2 Light and photochemistry 80

3.3 Atmospheric oxidants 86

3.4 Kinetics of atmospheric reactions 88

3.5 Stratospheric ozone 91

3.6 Smog 105

3.7 Problem set 112

4. Climate change and greenhouse effect 123

4.1 Historical perspective 123

4.2 Blackbody radiation and Earth’s temperature 125

4.3 Absorption of infrared radiation 130

4.4 Greenhouse effect 132

4.5 Earth’s radiative balance 134

4.6 Aerosols and clouds 138

4.7 Radiative forcing 141

4.8 Global warming potentials 142

4.9 Concluding remarks 144

4.10 Problem set 146

5. Carbon dioxide equilibria 153

5.1 Pure rain 155

5.2 Polluted rain 160

5.3 Surface water 169

5.4 Ocean acidification 174

5.5 Problem set 181

6. Pesticides, mercury, and lead 189

6.1 Pesticides 191

6.2 Mercury 210

6.3 Lead 213

6.4 Problem set 217

7. Fates or organic compounds 223

7.1 Vapor pressure 225

7.2 Water solubility 226

7.3 Henry’s Law constant 226

7.4 Partition coefficients 228

7.5 Lipophilicity 228

7.6 Bioaccumulation 231

7.7 Adsorption 232

7.8 Water-air transfer 234

7.9 Reactive fates of organic chemicals 240

7.10 Partitioning and persistence 242

7.11 Problem set 247

8. PCBs, dioxins, and flame retardants 257

8.1 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 257

8.2 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans 275

8.3 Brominated flame retardants 294

8.4 Lessons learned 301

A. Primer on organic structures and names 305

B. Answers to the problem set 323

C. Periodic table of the elements 326

Index 329 

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Ronald A. Hites, PhD, is a Distinguished Professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. He is a Fellow of the American Chemical Society and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has been an editor of Environmental Science and Technology since 1990.

Jonathan D. Raff, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. He was the recipient of a National Science Foundation American Competitiveness in Chemistry Postdoctoral Fellowship and a United States Environmental Protection Agency STAR Graduate Fellowship.

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“Overall, this is an instructive text for undergraduate environmental chemists (and their lecturers), punching well above what its compact format might initially suggest.”  (Chemistry World, 1 January 2013)

“A student who reads this book and works the problems will have some improved insight into environmental chemistry and will, if successful and hardworking, be a whiz at solving environmental and many other chemistry problems.  Summing Up: Recommended.  Lower-division undergraduates through researchers/faculty.”  (Choice, 1 November 2012)

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