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Principles of Tribology

ISBN: 978-1-118-06289-0
536 pages
February 2012
Principles of Tribology (1118062892) cover image
Professors Wen and Huang present current developments in tribology research along with tribology fundamentals and applications, including lubrication theory, lubrication design, friction mechanism, wear mechanism, friction control, and their applications. In addition to classical tribology, Wen and Huang cover the research areas of the modern tribology, as well as the regularities and characteristics of tribological phenomena in practice. Furthermore, the authors present the basic theory, numerical analysis methods, and experimental measuring techniques of tribology as well as their applications in engineering.
  • Provides a systematic presentation of tribology fundamentals and their applications
  • Discusses the current states and development trends in tribology research
  • Applies the applications to modern day engineering
  • Computer programs available for download from the book’s companion site

Principles of Tribology is aimed at postgraduates and senior-level undergraduates studying tribology, and can be used for courses covering theory and applications. Tribology professionals and students specializing in allied areas of mechanical engineering and materials science will also find the book to be a helpful reference or introduction to the topic.

Companion website for the book: www.wiley.com/go/wen/tribology

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About the Authors xv

Preface xvii

Introduction xix

PART I LUBRICATION THEORY 1

1 Properties of Lubricants 3

1.1 Lubrication States 3

1.2 Density of Lubricant 6

1.3 Viscosity of Lubricant 7

1.3.1 Dynamic Viscosity and Kinematic Viscosity 7

1.3.2 Relationship between Viscosity and Temperature 9

1.3.3 Relationship between Viscosity and Pressure 11

1.3.4 Relationships between Viscosity, Temperature and Pressure 12

1.4 Non-Newtonian Behaviors 12

1.4.1 Ree-Eyring Constitutive Equation 13

1.4.2 Visco-Plastic Constitutive Equation 13

1.4.3 Circular Constitutive Equation 14

1.4.4 Temperature-Dependent Constitutive Equation 14

1.4.5 Visco-Elastic Constitutive Equation 14

1.4.6 Nonlinear Visco-Elastic Constitutive Equation 15

1.4.7 A Simple Visco-Elastic Constitutive Equation 16

1.5 Wettability of Lubricants 17

1.5.1 Wetting and Contact Angle 17

1.5.2 Surface Tension 18

1.6 Measurement and Conversion of Viscosity 19

1.6.1 Rotary Viscometer 19

1.6.2 Off-Body Viscometer 20

1.6.3 Capillary Viscometer 20

References 22

2 Basic Theories of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 23

2.1 Reynolds Equation 24

2.1.1 Basic Assumptions 24

2.1.2 Derivation of Reynolds Equation 24

2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 27

2.2.1 Mechanism of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 27

2.2.2 Boundary Conditions and Initial Conditions of Reynolds Equation 28

2.2.3 Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 29

2.3 Elastic Contact Problems 30

2.3.1 Line Contact 30

2.3.2 Point Contact 33

2.4 Entrance Analysis of EHL 36

2.4.1 Elastic Deformation of Line Contacts 36

2.4.2 Reynolds Equation Considering the Effect of Pressure-Viscocity 37

2.4.3 Discussion 37

2.4.4 Grubin Film Thickness Formula 39

2.5 Grease Lubrication 40

References 42

3 Numerical Methods of Lubrication Calculation 43

3.1 Numerical Methods of Lubrication 44

3.1.1 Finite Difference Method 44

3.1.2 Finite Element Method and Boundary Element Method 50

3.1.3 Numerical Techniques 53

3.2 Numerical Solution of the Energy Equation 57

3.2.1 Conduction and Convection of Heat 57

3.2.2 Energy Equation 59

3.2.3 Numerical Solution of Energy Equation 61

3.3 The Numerical Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 62

3.3.1 EHL Numerical Solution of Line Contacts 62

3.3.2 EHL Numerical Solution of Point Contacts 67

3.4 Multi-Grid Method for Solving EHL Problems 70

3.4.1 Basic Principles of Multi-Grid Method 70

3.4.2 Nonlinear Full Approximation Scheme of Multi-Grid Method 72

3.4.3 V and W Iterations 74

3.4.4 Multi-Grid Solution of EHL Problems 74

3.4.5 Multi-Grid Integration Method 76

References 79

4 Lubrication Design of Typical Mechanical Elements 81

4.1 Slider and Thrust Bearing 81

4.1.1 Basic Equations 81

4.1.2 Solutions of Slider Lubrication 82

4.2 Journal Bearing 85

4.2.1 Axis Position and Clearance Shape 85

4.2.2 Infinitely Narrow Bearing 86

4.2.3 Infinitely Wide Bearing 88

4.3 Hydrostatic Bearing 92

4.3.1 Hydrostatic Thrust Plate 93

4.3.2 Hydrostatic Journal Bearings 94

4.3.3 Bearing Stiffness and Throttle 94

4.4 Squeeze Bearing 96

4.4.1 Rectangular Plate Squeeze 97

4.4.2 Disc Squeeze 98

4.4.3 Journal Bearing Squeeze 99

4.5 Dynamic Bearing 100

4.5.1 Reynolds Equation of Dynamic Journal Bearings 101

4.5.2 Simple Dynamic Bearing Calculation 103

4.5.3 General Dynamic Bearings 104

4.6 Gas Lubrication Bearings 107

4.6.1 Basic Equations of Gas Lubrication 107

4.6.2 Types of Gas Lubrication Bearings 108

4.7 Rolling Contact Bearing 111

4.7.1 Equivalent Radius R 111

4.7.2 Average Velocity U 112

4.7.3 Carrying Load Per Width W/b 112

4.8 Gear Lubrication 113

4.8.1 Involute Gear Transmission 113

4.8.2 Arc Gear Transmission EHL 117

4.9 Cam Lubrication 119

References 121

5 Special Fluid Medium Lubrication 123

5.1 Magnetic Hydrodynamic Lubrication 123

5.1.1 Composition and Classification of Magnetic Fluids 123

5.1.2 Properties of Magnetic Fluids 124

5.1.3 Basic Equations of Magnetic Hydrodynamic Lubrication 126

5.1.4 Influence Factors on the Magnetic EHL 129

5.2 Micro-polar Hydrodynamic Lubrication 129

5.2.1 Basic Equations of Micro-polar Fluid Lubrication 130

5.2.2 Influence Factors on Micro-polar Fluid Lubrication 133

5.3 Liquid Crystal Lubrication 135

5.3.1 Types of Liquid Crystal 136

5.3.2 Deformation Analysis of Liquid Crystal Lubrication 138

5.3.3 Friction Mechanism of Liquid Crystal as a Lubricant Additive 142

5.4 Electric Double Layer Effect in Water Lubrication 143

5.4.1 Electric Double Layer Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory 144

5.4.2 Influence of Electric Double Layer on Lubrication Properties 148

References 151

6 Lubrication Transformation and Nanoscale Thin Film Lubrication 153

6.1 Transformations of Lubrication States 153

6.1.1 Thickness-Roughness Ratio 153

6.1.2 Transformation from Hydrodynamic Lubrication to EHL 154

6.1.3 Transformation from EHL to Thin Film Lubrication 155

6.2 Thin Film Lubrication 159

6.2.1 Phenomena of Thin Film Lubrication 159

6.2.2 Time Effect of Thin Film Lubrication 161

6.2.3 Shear Strain Rate Effect on Thin Film Lubrication 163

6.3 Analysis of Thin Film Lubrication 165

6.3.1 Difficulties in Numerical Analysis of Thin Film Lubrication 165

6.3.2 Tichy's Thin Film Lubrication Models 166

6.4 Nano-Gas Film Lubrication 168

6.4.1 Rarefied Gas Effect 168

6.4.2 Bounardy Slip 169

6.4.3 Reynolds Equation Considering the Rarefied Gas Effect 172

6.4.4 Calculation of Magnetic Head/Disk of Ultra Thin Gas Lubrication 173

References 176

7 Boundary Lubrication and Additives 177

7.1 Types of Boundary Lubrication 177

7.1.1 Stribeck Curve 177

7.1.2 Adsorption Films and their Lubrication Mechanisms 178

7.1.3 Chemical Reaction Film and its Lubrication Mechanism 183

7.1.4 Other Boundary Films and their Lubrication Mechanisms 185

7.2 Theory of Boundary Lubrication 186

7.2.1 Boundary Lubrication Model 186

7.2.2 Factors Influencing Performances of Boundary Film 187

7.2.3 Strength of Boundary Film 190

7.3 Lubricant Additives 191

7.3.1 Oily Additives 191

7.3.2 Tackifier 192

7.3.3 Extreme Pressure Additives (EP Additives) 193

7.3.4 Anti-Wear Additives (AWAdditives) 193

7.3.5 Other Additives 194

References 195

8 Lubrication Failure and Mixed Lubrication 197

8.1 Roughness and Viscoelastic Material Effects on Lubrication 197

8.1.1 Modifications of micro-EHL 197

8.1.2 Viscoelastic Model 198

8.1.3 Lubricated Wear 199

8.2 Influence of Limit Shear Stress on Lubrication Failure 202

8.2.1 Visco-Plastic Constitutive Equation 203

8.2.2 Slip of Fluid-Solid Interface 203

8.2.3 Influence of Slip on Lubrication Properties 204

8.3 Influences of Temperature on Lubrication Failure 207

8.3.1 Mechanism of Lubrication Failure Caused by Temperature 208

8.3.2 Thermal Fluid Constitutive Equation 208

8.3.3 Analysis of Lubrication Failure 209

8.4 Mixed Lubrication 210

References 215

PART II FRICTION AND WEAR 217

9 Surface Topography and Contact 219

9.1 Parameters of Surface Topography 219

9.1.1 Arithmetic Mean Deviation Ra 219

9.1.2 Root-Mean-Square Deviation (RMS) s or Rq 219

9.1.3 Maximum Height Rmax 220

9.1.4 Load-carrying Area Curve 220

9.1.5 Arithmetic Mean Interception Length of Centerline Sma 220 219

9.2 Statistical Parameters of Surface Topography 222

9.2.1 Height Distribution Function 222

9.2.2 Deviation of Distribution 224

9.2.3 Autocorrelation Function of Surface Profile 225

9.3 Structures and Properties of Surface 226

9.4 Rough Surface Contact 227

9.4.1 Single Peak Contact 228

9.4.2 Ideal Roughness Contact 229

9.4.3 Random Roughness Contact 230

9.4.4 Plasticity Index 232

References 232

10 Solid Friction and Control 233

10.1 Basic Characteristics of Friction 233

10.1.1 Influence of Stationary Contact Time 234

10.1.2 Jerking Motion 234

10.1.3 Pre-Displacement 235

10.2 Macro-friction Theory 236

10.2.1 Mechanical Engagement Theory 236

10.2.2 Molecular Action Theory 237

10.2.3 Adhesive Friction Theory 238

10.2.4 Plowing Effect 241

10.2.5 Deformation Energy Friction Theory 243

10.2.6 Binomial Friction Theory 245

10.3 Micro-friction Theory 246

10.3.1 ‘‘Cobblestone’’ Model 246

10.3.2 Oscillator Models 248

10.3.3 Phonon Friction Model 251

10.4 Sliding Friction 251

10.4.1 Influence of Load 252

10.4.2 Influence of Sliding Velocity 252

10.4.3 Influence of Temperature 253

10.4.4 Influence of Surface Film 253

10.5 Rolling Friction 254

10.5.1 Rolling Friction Mechanism 256

10.5.2 Resistances of Rolling Friction 256

10.6 Special Friction and Friction Control 257

10.6.1 Special Friction 257

10.6.2 Friction Control 258

References 261

11 Characteristics and Mechanisms of Wear 263

11.1 Classification of Wear 263

11.1.1 Wear Categories 264

11.1.2 Wear Process 264

11.1.3 Conversion of Wear 266

11.2 Abrasive Wear 266

11.2.1 Types of Abrasive Wear 267

11.2.2 Influence Factors on Abrasive Wear 267

11.2.3 Mechanism of Abrasive Wear 271

11.3 Adhesive Wear 272

11.3.1 Types of Adhesive Wear 272

11.3.2 Influence Factors on Adhesive Wear 273

11.3.3 Adhesive Wear Mechanism 275

11.3.4 Criteria of Scuffing 277

11.4 Fatigue Wear 280

11.4.1 Types of Fatigue Wear 280

11.4.2 Influence Factors on Fatigue Wear 281

11.4.3 Criteria of Fatigue Strength and Fatigue Life 285

11.5 Corrosive Wear 289

11.5.1 Oxidation Wear 289

11.5.2 Special Corrosive Wear 291

11.5.3 Fretting 291

11.5.4 Cavitation Erosion 292

References 295

12 Macro-wear Theory 297

12.1 Friction Material 298

12.1.1 Friction Material Properties 298

12.1.2 Wear-Resistant Mechanism 299

12.2 Wear Process Curve 300

12.2.1 Types of Wear Process Curves 300

12.2.2 Running-In 301

12.3 Surface Quality and Wear 304

12.3.1 Influence of Geometric Quality 304

12.3.2 Physical Quality 307

12.4 Theory of Adhesion Wear 308

12.5 Theory of Energy Wear 309

12.6 Delamination Wear Theory and Fatigue Wear Theory 311

12.6.1 Delamination Wear Theory 311

12.6.2 Fatigue Wear Theory 312

12.7 Wear Calculation 313

12.7.1 IBM Wear Calculation Method 313

12.7.2 Calculation Method of Combined Wear 314

References 319

13 Anti-Wear Design and Surface Coating 321

13.1 Selection of Lubricant and Additive 321

13.1.1 Lubricant Selection 322

13.1.2 Grease Selection 324

13.1.3 Solid Lubricants 325

13.1.4 Seal and Filter 326

13.2 Matching Principles of Friction Materials 326

13.2.1 Material Mating for Abrasive Wear 327

13.2.2 Material Mating for Adhesive Wear 328

13.2.3 Material Mating for Contact Fatigue Wear 329

13.2.4 Material Mating for Fretting Wear 330

13.2.5 Material Mating for Corrosion Wear 330

13.2.6 Surface Hardening 330

13.3 Surface Coating 331

13.3.1 Commonly Plating Methods 331

13.3.2 Design of Surface Coating 338

13.4 Coating Performance Testing 339

13.4.1 Appearance and Structure 339

13.4.2 Bond Strength Test 340

13.4.3 Hardness Test 344

13.4.4 Wear Test 345

13.4.5 Tests of Other Performances 345

References 346

14 Tribological Experiments 347

14.1 Tribological Experimental Method and Device 347

14.1.1 Experimental Methods 347

14.1.2 Commonly Used Friction and Wear Testing Machines 349

14.1.3 EHL and Thin Film Lubrication Test 349

14.2 Measurement of Wear Capacity 352

14.2.1 Weighing Method 352

14.2.2 Length Measurement Method 352

14.2.3 Profile Method 352

14.2.4 Indentation Method 353

14.2.5 Grooving Method 356

14.2.6 Precipitation Method and Chemical Analysis Method 357

14.2.7 Radioactive Method 357

14.3 Analysis of Friction Surface Morphology 358

14.3.1 Analysis of Surface Topography 358

14.3.2 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) 358

14.3.3 Surface Structure Analysis 360

14.3.4 Surface Chemical Composition Analysis 362

14.4 Wear State Detection 363

14.4.1 Ferrography Analysis 363

14.4.2 Spectral Analysis 365

14.4.3 Lubricant Composition Analysis 365

14.4.4 Mechanical Vibration and Noise Analysis 365

14.4.5 Lubrication State Analysis 365

14.5 Wear Failure Analysis 365

14.5.1 Site Investigation 365

14.5.2 Lubricant and its Supply System 366

14.5.3 Worn Part Analysis 366

14.5.4 Design and Operation 366

References 367

PART III APPLIED TRIBOLOGY 369

15 Micro-tribology 371

15.1 Micro-friction 371

15.1.1 Macro-friction and Micro-friction 371

15.1.2 Micro-friction and Surface Topography 372

15.1.3 Plowing Effect and Adhesion Effective 375

15.2 Micro-contact and Micro-adhesion 377

15.2.1 Solid Micro-contact 377

15.2.2 Solid Adhesion and Surface Force 378

15.3 Micro-Wear 380

15.3.1 Micro-Wear Experiment 380

15.3.2 Micro-Wear of Magnetic Head and Disk 382

15.4 Molecular Film and Boundary Lubrication 385

15.4.1 Static Shear Property of Molecular Layer 386

15.4.2 Dynamic Shear Property of Monolayer and Stick-Slip Phenomenon 387

15.4.3 Physical State and Phase Change 389

15.4.4 Temperature Effect and Friction Mechanism 390

15.4.5 Rheological Property of Molecular Film 390

15.4.6 Ordered Molecular Film 393

References 395

16 Metal Forming Tribology 397

16.1 Mechanics Basis of Metal Forming 397

16.1.1 Yield Criterion 397

16.1.2 Friction Coefficient and Shear Factor 398

16.1.3 Influence of Friction on Metal Forming 400

16.2 Forging Tribology 401

16.2.1 Upsetting Friction 401

16.2.2 Friction of Open Die Forging 403

16.2.3 Friction of Closed-Die Forging 403

16.2.4 Lubrication and Wear 404

16.3 Drawing Tribology 406

16.3.1 Friction and Temperature 406

16.3.2 Lubrication 407

16.3.3 Wear of Drawing Die 409

16.3.4 Anti-Friction of Ultrasound in Drawing 412

16.4 Rolling Tribology 415

16.4.1 Friction in Rolling 415

16.4.2 Lubrication in Rolling 417

16.4.3 Roller Wear 419

16.4.4 Emulsion Lubricity in Rolling 421

References 421

17 Bio-Tribology 423

17.1 Mechanics Basis for Soft Biological Tissue 423

17.1.1 Rheological Property of Soft Tissue 423

17.1.2 Stress-Strain Curve Analysis 423

17.1.3 Anisotropy Relationship 425

17.2 Characteristics of Joint Lubricating Fluid 426

17.2.1 Joint Lubricating Fluid 426

17.2.2 Lubrication Characteristics of Joint Fluid 427

17.3 Lubrication of Human and Animal Joints 430

17.3.1 Performance of Human Joint 430

17.3.2 Joint Lubricating Fluid 431

17.3.3 Lubrication Mechanism of Joint 432

17.4 Friction and Wear of Artificial Joint 434

17.4.1 Friction and Wear Test 434

17.4.2 Wear of Artificial Joint 435

17.5 Other Bio-Tribological Studies 438

References 438

18 Space Tribology 439

18.1 Features of Space Agency and Space Tribology 439

18.1.1 Working Conditions in Space 439

18.1.2 Features of Space Tribology Problems 441

18.2 Analysis of Performances of Space Tribology 442

18.2.1 Starved Lubrication 442

18.2.2 Parched Lubrication 443

18.2.3 Volatility Analysis 444

18.2.4 Creeping 446

18.3 Space Lubricating Properties 448

18.3.1 EHL Characteristics of Space Lubricant 448

18.3.2 Space Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing 449

References 450

Index 453

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