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Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems: Fate and Transport Processes in the Water Environment, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-07860-0
472 pages
November 2012, ©2013
Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems: Fate and Transport Processes in the Water Environment, 2nd Edition (1118078608) cover image

Provides the tools needed to control and remediate the quality of natural water systems

Now in its Second Edition, this acclaimed text sets forth core concepts and principles that govern the fate and transport of contaminants in water, giving environmental and civil engineers and students a full set of tools to design systems that effectively control and remediate the quality of natural waters. Readers will find coverage of all major classes of water bodies. Moreover, the author discusses the terrestrial fate and transport of contaminants in watersheds, underscoring the link between terrestrial loadings and water pollution.

Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems begins with an introduction exploring the sources of water pollution and the control of water pollution. It then presents the fundamentals of fate and transport, including the derivation and application of the advection–diffusion equation. Next, the text covers issues that are unique to:

  • Rivers and streams
  • Groundwater
  • Watersheds
  • Lakes and reservoirs
  • Wetlands
  • Oceans and estuaries

The final two chapters are dedicated to analyzing water-quality measurements and modeling water quality.

This Second Edition is thoroughly updated based on the latest findings, practices, and standards. In particular, readers will find new methods for calculating total maximum daily loads for river contaminants, with specific examples detailing the fate and transport of bacteria, a pressing problem throughout the world.

With end-of-chapter problems and plenty of worked examples, Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems enables readers to not only understand what happens to contaminants in water, but also design systems to protect people from toxic pollutants.

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PREFACE xvii

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 The Problem 1

1.2 Sources of Water Pollution 2

1.2.1 Point Sources 2

1.2.2 Nonpoint Sources 4

1.3 Control of Water Pollution 5

2 WATER QUALITY 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Physical Measures 7

2.2.1 Flow Conditions 7

2.2.2 Substrate 8

2.2.3 In-Stream Habitat 9

2.2.4 Riparian Habitat 9

2.2.5 Thermal Pollution 10

2.3 Chemical Measures 10

2.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen 10

2.3.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 12

2.3.3 Suspended Solids 14

2.3.4 Nutrients 15

2.3.5 Metals 17

2.3.6 Synthetic Organic Chemicals 18

2.3.7 Radionuclides 18

2.3.8 pH 19

2.4 Biological Measures 19

2.4.1 Human Pathogenic Microorganisms 20

2.4.2 Indicator Organisms 23

2.4.3 Biological Integrity 24

Problems 25

3 FUNDAMENTALS OF FATE AND TRANSPORT 27

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 The Advection–Diffusion Equation 27

3.2.1 Nondimensional Form 29

3.2.2 Transformation to the Diffusion Equation 31

3.2.3 Moment Property of the Diffusion Equation 32

3.3 Fundamental Solutions of the Advection–Diffusion Equation 33

3.3.1 Diffusion in One Dimension 34

3.3.2 Diffusion in Two Dimensions 46

3.3.3 Diffusion in Three Dimensions 52

3.4 Transport of Suspended Particles 60

3.5 Turbulent Diffusion 62

3.5.1 Relationship of Turbulent Diffusion Coefficient to Velocity Field 63

3.5.2 Eulerian Approximation 65

3.6 Dispersion 68

Problems 72

4 RIVERS AND STREAMS 78

4.1 Introduction 78

4.2 Transport Processes 79

4.2.1 Initial Mixing 79

4.2.2 Longitudinal Dispersion 85

4.3 Models of Spills 90

4.3.1 Substances with First-Order Decay 90

4.3.2 Spills of Volatile Organic Compounds 93

4.4 Models of Dissolved Oxygen 95

4.4.1 Oxygen Demand of Wastewater 95

4.4.2 Reaeration 96

4.4.3 Streeter–Phelps Model 98

4.4.4 Other Considerations 102

4.4.5 Chapra–Di Toro Model 113

4.4.6 Empirical Models 116

4.4.7 Numerical Models 116

4.5 Models of Nutrients 116

4.6 Models of Pathogens 118

4.7 Contaminant Loads 119

4.7.1 Total Maximum Daily Loads 119

4.7.2 Long-Term Contaminant Loads 128

4.8 Management and Restoration 131

4.8.1 Nonstructural Techniques 131

4.8.2 Structural Techniques 132

Problems 134

5 GROUNDWATER 142

5.1 Introduction 142

5.2 Contaminant Sources 142

5.2.1 Septic Tanks 142

5.2.2 Leaking Underground Storage Tanks 143

5.2.3 Land Application of Wastewater 144

5.2.4 Irrigation Return Flow 145

5.2.5 Solid Waste Disposal Sites 146

5.2.6 Waste Disposal Injection Wells 146

5.2.7 Agricultural Operations 147

5.3 Fate and Transport Models 147

5.3.1 Instantaneous Point Source 149

5.3.2 Continuous Point Source 150

5.3.3 Continuous Plane Source 152

5.4 Transport Processes 154

5.5 Fate Processes 160

5.5.1 Sorption 160

5.5.2 First-Order Decay 165

5.5.3 Combined Sorption and Decay 167

5.5.4 Biocolloids 169

5.6 Nonaqueous Phase Liquids 170

5.6.1 Residual Saturation 171

5.6.2 Raoult’s Law 172

5.7 Monitoring Wells 175

5.8 Remediation of Subsurface Contamination 179

5.8.1 Remediation Goals 180

5.8.2 Remediation Strategies 181

Problems 196

6 WATERSHEDS 203

6.1 Introduction 203

6.2 Urban Watersheds 203

6.2.1 Sources of Pollution 205

6.2.2 Fate and Transport Processes 208

6.2.3 Stormwater Control Measures 215

6.3 Agricultural Watersheds 224

6.3.1 Sources of Pollution 224

6.3.2 Fate and Transport Processes 226

6.3.3 Best Management Practices 236

6.4 Airsheds 240

Problems 241

7 LAKES AND RESERVOIRS 243

7.1 Introduction 243

7.2 Physical Processes 245

7.2.1 Circulation 245

7.2.2 Sedimentation 247

7.2.3 Light Penetration 248

7.3 Eutrophication 249

7.3.1 Biomass–Nutrient Relationships 250

7.3.2 Measures of Trophic State 252

7.3.3 Depth of Anoxia 255

7.4 Thermal Stratifi cation 255

7.4.1 Layer Characteristics 257

7.4.2 Gravity Circulation 257

7.4.3 Water-Quality Impacts 258

7.4.4 Measures of Mixing Potential 259

7.4.4.1 Richardson Number 259

7.4.4.2 Densimetric Froude Number 260

7.4.5 Artificial Destratification 260

7.5 Water-Quality Models 261

7.5.1 Zero-Dimensional (Completely Mixed) Model 261

7.5.2 One-Dimensional (Vertical) Models 266

7.5.3 Two-Dimensional Models 272

7.6 Management and Restoration 275

7.6.1 Control of Eutrophication 275

7.6.2 Control of DO Levels 277

7.6.3 Control of Acidity 279

7.6.4 Control of Aquatic Plants 280

Problems 282

8 WETLANDS 286

8.1 Introduction 286

8.2 Natural Wetlands 286

8.2.1 Classifi cation 287

8.2.2 Delineation of Wetlands 289

8.2.3 Water Budget 291

8.3 Constructed Treatment Wetlands 292

8.3.1 Classification 293

8.3.2 Design of FWS Wetlands 295

Problems 305

9 OCEANS AND ESTUARIES 307

9.1 Introduction 307

9.2 Ocean Outfall Discharges 307

9.2.1 Near-Field Mixing 311

9.2.2 Far-Field Mixing 323

9.3 Estuaries 328

9.3.1 Classification of Estuaries 329

9.3.2 Water-Quality Issues 329

9.3.3 Salinity Distribution 330

9.3.4 Dissolved Oxygen: The Estuary Streeter–Phelps Model 331

9.3.5 Flow and Circulation 334

Problems 337

10 ANALYSIS OF WATER-QUALITY MEASUREMENTS 340

10.1 Introduction 340

10.2 Probability Distributions 340

10.2.1 Properties of Probability Distributions 340

10.2.2 Mathematical Expectation and Moments 341

10.3 Fundamental Probability Distributions 342

10.3.1 Normal Distribution 342

10.3.2 Log-Normal Distribution 344

10.3.3 Uniform Distribution 345

10.4 Derived Probability Distributions 346

10.4.1 Chi-Square Distribution 346

10.4.2 Student’s t Distribution 347

10.4.3 F Distribution 348

10.5 Estimation of Population Distribution from Sample Data 348

10.5.1 Sample Probability Distribution 349

10.5.2 Comparisons of Probability Distributions 350

10.6 Estimation of Parameters of Population Distribution 352

10.6.1 Method of Moments 352

10.6.2 Maximum Likelihood Method 354

10.6.3 Method of L-Moments 355

10.7 Probability Distributions of Sample Statistics 356

10.7.1 Mean 356

10.7.2 Variance 356

10.7.3 Coeffi cient of Skewness 357

10.7.4 Median 357

10.7.5 Coeffi cient of Variation 357

10.7.6 Useful Theorems 358

10.8 Confi dence Intervals 359

10.8.1 Mean 359

10.8.2 Variance 359

10.8.3 Variance Ratios 360

10.9 Hypothesis Testing 361

10.9.1 Mean 361

10.9.2 Variance 362

10.9.3 Population Differences 362

10.9.4 Normality 364

10.9.5 Trends 366

10.10 Relationships between Variables 368

10.10.1 Correlation 368

10.10.2 Regression Analysis 369

10.11 Functions of Random Variables 372

10.11.1 Addition and Subtraction 372

10.11.2 Multiplication 373

10.11.3 Division 374

10.11.4 Other Functions 375

10.12 Kriging 375

10.12.1 The Stationary Case 376

10.12.2 The Intrinsic Case 379

Problems 382

11 MODELING OF WATER QUALITY 387

11.1 Introduction 387

11.2 Code Selection 388

11.3 Calibration 388

11.3.1 Sensitivity Analysis 390

11.3.2 Performance Analysis 391

11.3.3 Parameter Estimation 398

11.4 Validation 401

11.5 Simulation 402

11.6 Uncertainty Analysis 402

11.6.1 Bayesian and GLUE Analyses 402

11.6.2 Monte Carlo Analysis 403

11.6.3 Analytical Probability Models 403

11.6.4 First-Order Uncertainty Analysis 404

A UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS 406

A.1 Units 406

A.2 Conversion Factors 408

B FLUID PROPERTIES 409

B.1 Water 409

B.2 Organic Compounds Found in Water 409

C STATISTICAL TABLES 411

C.1 Areas under the Standard Normal Curve 411

C.2 Critical Values of the t Distribution 413

C.3 Critical Values of the Chi-Square Distribution 413

C.4 Critical Values of the F Distribution (α = 0.05) 414

C.5 Critical Values for the Kolmogorov–Smirnov Test Statistic 416

D SPECIAL FUNCTIONS 417

D.1 Error Function 417

D.2 Bessel Functions 417

D.2.1 Defi nition 417

D.2.2 Evaluation of Bessel Functions 418

D.3 Gamma Function 420

D.4 Exponential Integral 421

BIBLIOGRAPHY 422

INDEX 442

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DAVID A. CHIN, PhD, is Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Miami as well as a registered Professional Engineer. Dr. Chin has published extensively, with important contributions on the fate and transport of contaminants in rivers, groundwater, oceans, and watersheds. His research interests also extend to wetland hydrology and vadose-zone hydrology. Dr. Chin is a recipient of the prestigious Collingwood Prize awarded by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

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“This book is obviously a very valuable tool for the specialists in the field, for researchers, and students for enlarging their horizon on water-quality engineering in natural systems.”  (Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 1 April 2013)

“This well-organized, comprehensive book is intended to be used as the sole water quality textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, but it would also make an excellent reference for environmental engineering professionals. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals/practitioners.”  (Choice, 1 August 2013)

 

 

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