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Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems: Design, Characterization, and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-118-08759-6
480 pages
November 2011
Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems: Design, Characterization, and Applications (1118087593) cover image

A fundamental resource for understanding and developing effective self-assembly and nanotechnology systems

Systematically integrating self-assembly, nanoassembly, and nanofabrication into one easy-to-use source, Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems effectively helps students, professors, and researchers comprehend and develop applicable techniques for use in the field. Through case studies, countless examples, clear questions, and general applications, this book provides experiment-oriented techniques for designing, applying, and characterizing self-assembly and nanotechnology systems.

Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems includes:

  • Techniques for identifying assembly building units
  • Practical assembly methods to focus on when developing nanomaterials, nanostructures, nanoproperties, nanofabricated systems, and nanomechanics
  • Algorithmic diagrams in each chapter for a general overview
  • Schematics designed to link assembly principles with actual systems
  • Hands-on lab activities

This informative reference also analyzes the diverse origins and structures of assembly building units, segmental analysis, and selection of assembly principles, methods, characterization techniques, and predictive models. Complementing the author's previous conceptually based book on this topic, Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems is a practical guide that grants practitioners not only the skills to properly analyze assembly building units but also how to work with applications to exercise and develop their knowledge of this rapidly advancing scientific field.

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PREFACE xvii

ABBREVIATIONS xix

PART I BUILDING UNITS 1

1 Self-Assembly Systems 3

1.1. Self-Assembly / 4

1.2. Identification of Building Units / 6

1.2.1. What Is a Self-Assembly Building Unit? / 6

1.2.2. Segmental Analysis / 7

1.2.2.1. Three Fundamental Segments / 7

1.2.2.2. Two Additional Segments / 11

1.3. Implication of Building Unit Structures for Self-Assemblies / 15

1.4. General Assembly Diagram / 17

1.5. Collection of Building Units / 23

1.5.1. Basic Building Units / 23

1.5.2. Directionally Assembling Building Units / 26

1.5.3. Asymmetrically Packing Building Units / 28

1.5.4. Functional Building Units / 28

1.6. Concluding Remarks / 30

References / 31

2 Nanotechnology Systems 33

2.1. Nanoassembly / 35

2.2. Identification of Building Units / 37

2.2.1. What Is a Nanoassembly Building Unit? / 37

2.2.2. Fabrication Building Units / 38

2.2.3. Reactive Building Units / 40

2.3. Nanoelements / 41

2.4. Implication of Building Unit Structures for Nanoassemblies / 42

2.5. General Assembly Diagram / 45

2.6. Self-Assembly, Nanoassembly, and Nanofabrication / 51

2.7. Collection of Building Units / 54

2.7.1. Ligand-Protected Nanoparticles / 54

2.7.2. Functional Surfaces / 56

2.7.3. Reactive Precursors / 57

2.7.4. Substrates / 57

2.7.5. Reducing Agents / 58

2.8. Concluding Remarks / 58

References / 60

PART II DESIGN 61

3 Identification of Self-Assembly Capability 63

3.1. Assembly Issue / 63

3.2. General Overview / 64

3.3. Assembly Principles / 65

3.3.1. Molecular Self-Assembly / 65

3.3.1.1. Ionic Surfactants / 69

3.3.1.2. Nonionic Surfactants / 70

3.3.2. Colloidal Self-Assembly / 71

3.3.2.1. Colloids with Different Origins / 74

3.3.2.2. Colloids with Different Sizes / 75

3.3.3. Directionally Assembling Systems / 77

3.3.4. Self-Assembly at Surfaces / 81

3.3.4.1. Hydrophobic Surfaces / 82

3.3.4.2. Hydrophilic Surfaces / 87

3.4. Collection of Primary Self-Assembled Aggregates / 89

3.5. Summary / 89

References / 91

4 Identification of Multi-Step Self-Assemblies 93

4.1. Assembly Issue / 93

4.2. General Overview / 94

4.3. Assembly Principles / 96

4.3.1. Molecular Self-Assembly of Surfactants / 97

4.3.2. Colloidal Self-Assembly / 102

4.4. Collection of Higher-Order Self-Assembled Aggregates / 105

4.5. Collection of Self-Assembled Aggregates within Biological Systems / 107

4.6. Summary / 108

References / 110

5 Control of the Structures of Self-Assembled Aggregates 111

5.1. Assembly Issue / 111

5.2. General Overview / 112

5.2.1. Primary Self-Assembled Aggregates / 112

5.2.2. Higher-Order Self-Assembled Aggregates / 113

5.3. Assembly Principles / 115

5.3.1. Primary Self-Assembled Aggregates / 115

5.3.1.1. Molecular Systems I / 117

5.3.1.2. Molecular Systems II / 121

5.3.1.3. Colloidal Systems / 125

5.3.2. Higher-Order Self-Assembled Aggregates / 130

5.3.2.1. Molecular Systems / 132

5.3.2.2. Colloidal Systems / 134

5.4. Collection of the Structures of Self-Assembled Aggregates / 136

5.4.1. Primary Self-Assembled Aggregates / 136

5.4.2. Higher-Order Self-Assembled Aggregates / 137

5.5. Summary / 139

References / 140

6 Hierarchy and Chirality of Self-Assembled Aggregates 141

6.1. Assembly Issue / 141

6.2. General Overview / 142

6.3. Assembly Principles / 143

6.3.1. Molecular Systems / 145

6.3.2. Surface Systems / 148

6.4. Collection of Hierarchy within Self-Assembled Aggregates / 156

6.5. Collection of Chirality Expressed by Self-Assembled Aggregates / 157

6.6. Summary / 159

References / 160

7 Assembly with Multiple Building Units 161

7.1. Assembly Issue / 161

7.2. General Overview / 163

7.3. Assembly Principles / 164

7.3.1. Analysis of Building Units / 164

7.3.2. Assembly of Nanoassembled Systems / 168

7.3.2.1. Homogeneous Assemblies / 168

7.3.2.2. Sequential Assemblies / 172

7.3.2.3. Hierarchical Assemblies / 177

7.3.3. General Assembly Trends / 180

7.3.3.1. Homogeneous Assemblies / 180

7.3.3.2. Heterogeneous Assemblies I / 182

7.3.3.3. Surface Assemblies / 183

7.3.3.4. Heterogeneous Assemblies II / 184

7.4. Collection of Nanoassembled Systems I / 185

7.5. Collection of Nanoporous Solids / 186

7.5.1. Synthetic Zeolites / 187

7.5.2. Metal-Organic Frameworks / 189

7.6. Summary / 189

References / 189

8 Directed and Forced Assemblies 191

8.1. Assembly Issue / 191

8.2. General Overview / 192

8.3. Assembly Principles / 196

8.3.1. Analysis of Building Units / 196

8.3.2. Assembly under External Forces / 199

8.3.2.1. Forced Assemblies / 199

8.3.2.2. Directed/Forced Assemblies / 204

8.3.2.3. Directed Assemblies / 208

8.3.3. General Assembly Trends under External Forces / 213

8.3.3.1. Forced Assemblies / 214

8.3.3.2. Directed/Forced Assemblies / 215

8.3.3.3. Directed Assemblies / 216

8.3.3.4. Window of Critical External Forces / 218

8.4. Techniques for Directed and Forced Assemblies / 219

8.5. Surface-Induced Directed and Forced Assemblies / 220

8.6. Collection of Nanoassembled Systems II / 220

8.7. Summary / 222

References / 222

PART III APPLICATIONS 225

9 External Signal–Responsive Nanomaterials 227

9.1. Nanoissue / 227

9.2. General Overview / 228

9.3. Assembly Principles / 231

9.3.1. External Signal–Responsive Molecular Assemblies / 231

9.3.1.1. Light-Responsive Assemblies / 232

9.3.1.2. Catalytic Reaction–Responsive Assemblies / 235

9.3.1.3. Electrochemical-Responsive Assemblies / 237

9.3.1.4. Solution pH–Responsive Assemblies / 239

9.3.2. External Signal–Responsive Colloidal Assemblies / 242

9.3.2.1. Thermo-Responsive Assemblies / 244

9.3.2.2. Solution pH–Responsive Assemblies / 245

9.3.2.3. Magnetic Field–Responsive Assemblies / 247

9.4. Collection of External Signal–Responsive Assembly Systems / 250

9.5. From Assembly Systems to Nanomaterials / 250

9.6. Collection of External Signal–Responsive Nanomaterials / 253

9.7. Summary / 254

References / 255

10 Nanomaterials with Intrinsic Functionalities 257

10.1. Nanoissue / 257

10.2. General Overview / 258

10.3. Assembly Principles / 261

10.3.1. Molecular Assembled Systems / 263

10.3.2. Colloidal Assembled Systems / 267

10.4. From Assembled Systems to Nanomaterials / 270

10.5. Collection of Nanomaterials with Intrinsic Functionalities / 270

10.6. Summary / 272

References / 272

11 Nanostructures: Designed to Perform 275

11.1. Nanoissue / 275

11.2. General Overview / 276

11.3. Assembly Principles / 277

11.3.1. Analysis of Building Units / 277

11.3.2. Nanostructure Assemblies / 281

11.3.3. Nanopore-Based Nanostructures / 283

11.3.4. Nanoparticle-Based Nanostructures / 287

11.3.5. Nanofilm-Based Nanostructures / 292

11.3.6. General Trends / 297

11.4. Collection of Common Nanostructure Names / 298

11.5. Collection of Nanostructures and Their Applications / 298

11.6. Summary / 301

References / 303

12 Nanoproperties: Controlled to Express 305

12.1. Nanoissue / 305

12.2. General Overview / 306

12.3. Assembly Principles / 307

12.3.1. Analysis of Building Units / 307

12.3.2. Different Types of Nanoproperties / 313

12.3.3. Assemblies to Obtain Nanoproperties / 316

12.3.4. Individual Types of Nanoproperties / 318

12.3.5. Collective Types of Nanoproperties / 321

12.3.6. Cooperative Types of Nanoproperties / 324

12.3.7. General Trends / 327

12.4. Collection of Nanoproperties and Their Applications / 328

12.5. Summary / 329

References / 331

13 Nanofabricated Systems: Combined to Function 333

13.1. Nanoissue / 333

13.2. General Overview / 334

13.3. Fabrication Principles / 335

13.3.1. Analysis of Building Units / 336

13.3.2. Nanofabrication / 340

13.3.3. Bottom-Up Approach / 342

13.3.4. Top-Down Approach / 345

13.3.5. Bottom-Up/Top-Down Hybrid Approach / 347

13.3.6. General Trends / 350

13.4. Collection of Top-Down Techniques / 352

13.5. Collection of Top-Down Bulk Materials and Functionalizing Agents / 352

13.6. Collection of Nanofabricated Systems and Their Applications / 353

13.7. Summary / 353

References / 356

14 Nanomechanical Movements: Combined to Operate 359

14.1. Nanoissue / 359

14.2. General Overview / 360

14.3. Fabrication Principles / 361

14.3.1. Element Motions / 361

14.3.2. Working Mechanisms / 362

14.3.3. Analysis of Building Units / 364

14.3.4. Periodic Push Motions / 372

14.3.5. Periodic Pull Motions / 374

14.3.6. Push–Pull Motion Cycles / 375

14.3.7. Periodic Push Motions under Guide Motion / 378

14.3.8. Periodic Pull Motions under Guide Motion / 380

14.3.9. Push–Pull Motion Cycles under Guide Motion / 383

14.3.10. General Trends / 385

14.4. Collection of Nanomechanical Movements / 386

14.5. Summary / 390

References / 390

PART IV CHARACTERIZATION 393

15 Assembly Forces and Measurements 395

15.1. Intermolecular and Colloidal Forces / 395

15.2. Collection of Intermolecular and Colloidal Forces / 396

15.3. Measurements of Intermolecular and Colloidal Forces / 396

15.3.1. Atomic Force Microscopy / 396

15.3.2. Surface Forces Apparatus / 398

15.4. Collection of Measurement Techniques / 399

15.5. Implications of Building Unit Structures for Characterization / 399

References / 402

16 Assembly Processes and Critical Behaviors 405

16.1. Critical Behaviors as the Characterization Guide of Assembly Processes / 405

16.2. Characterization Principles / 407

16.2.1. Self-Assembly Capability / 407

16.2.1.1. Molecular Systems / 407

16.2.1.2. Colloidal Systems / 409

16.2.2. Multi-Step Self-Assemblies / 410

16.2.2.1. Molecular Systems / 410

16.2.2.2. Colloidal Systems / 412

16.3. Collection of Physical Properties to Measure / 413

16.4. Collection of Critical Assembly Parameters / 414

References / 414

17 Assembled Systems and Structural Properties 417

17.1. Structural Properties for the Characterization of Assembled Systems / 417

17.2. Characterization Principles / 419

17.2.1. Structures of Primary Assembled Systems / 419

17.2.1.1. Molecular Systems / 419

17.2.1.2. Colloidal Systems / 421

17.2.2. Structures of Higher-Order Assembled Systems / 422

17.2.3. Hierarchy and Chirality / 422

17.2.4. Effect of External Forces / 425

17.2.5. Functional Assembled Systems / 426

17.3. Collection of Structural Properties to Measure / 427

References / 427

18 Modeling and Simulations 429

18.1. Assembly Systems Are Big and Multi-Scaled / 429

18.2. Classic Models / 430

18.2.1. Thermodynamic Models / 430

18.2.2. Colloidal Model / 430

18.2.3. Geometrical Model / 431

18.2.4. Elastic Model / 431

18.2.5. Isotherms / 431

18.3. Simulations / 431

18.3.1. Electronic Simulations / 432

18.3.1.1. Density Functional Theory / 432

18.3.1.2. Mean-Field Theory / 433

18.3.2. Atomistic Simulations / 433

18.3.2.1. Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo Methods / 433

18.3.3. Coarse-Grained Simulations / 433

18.3.3.1. Dissipative Particle Dynamics / 434

18.3.3.2. Patchy Particle Model / 434

18.3.3.3. Brownian Dynamics / 435

18.3.3.4. BRAHMS / 435

18.3.3.5. MARTINI / 436

18.3.4. Continuum Simulations / 436

18.3.5. Multi-Scale Simulations / 436

18.4. Concluding Remarks / 437

References / 437

EPILOGUE

Informatics for Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems 441

E.1. Background / 441

E.2. Definition and Principle / 443

E.3. Structure / 444

E.4. Development and Benefits / 445

E.5. Challenges / 446

References / 446

INDEX 449

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YOON S. LEE, PhD, is a Scientific Information Analyst at Chemical Abstracts Service. He earned his PhD from Seoul National University in South Korea and performed postdoctoral research at The Ohio State University. He is the author of Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology: A Force Balance Approach.
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“While the book may be too challenging for many general readers, it may turn out to be a useful resource for training postgraduate students in the field of self-assembly.”  (Chemistry & Industry, 1 June 2012)

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