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The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging

ISBN: 978-1-118-09327-6
408 pages
December 2014
The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging (1118093275) cover image
Molecular imaging is primarily about the chemistry of novel biological probes, yet the vast majority of practitioners are not chemists or biochemists. This is the first book, written from a chemist's point of view, to address the nature of the chemical interaction between probe and environment to help elucidate biochemical detail instead of bulk anatomy. 

  • Covers all of the fundamentals of modern imaging methodologies, including their techniques and application within medicine and industry
  • Focuses primarily on the chemistry of probes and imaging agents, and chemical methodology for labelling and bioconjugation
  • First book to investigate the chemistry of molecular imaging
  • Aimed at students as well as researchers involved in the area of molecular imaging
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Preface

CHAPTER ONE: An Introduction to Molecular Imaging
Ga-Lai Law and Wing-Tak Wong

1. Introduction

2. What is Positron Emission Tomography (PET)?

3. What is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)?

4. What is Computed Tomography (CT) or Computed Axial Tomography (CAT)?

5. What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)?

6. What is Optical Imaging?

7. What is Ultrasound (US)?

8. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER TWO: Chemical Methodology for Labelling and Bioconjugation
Lina Cui and Jianghong Rao

1. Introduction

Part I Chemical Methods

2. Through Reactions with Aldehydes or Ketones

3. Through Reactions with Azides

4. Through Reactions with Alkenes

5. Cross-Coupling Reactions

Part II Site-Specific Modification of Protein or Peptide

6. N-terminal Cysteine

7. Aromatic Residues

8. N-terminus of Protein

9. C-terminus of Protein

10. Introduction of Chemical Tags for Site-Specific Labeling on Peptides or Proteins

11. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER THREE:Recent Developments in the Chemistry of [18F]Fluoride for PET

Dirk Roeda and Frédéric Dollé

1. Introduction

2. Fluorine-18, The Starting Material

3. Reactive [18F] Fluoride

4. The Radiofluorination

5. Labelling of Large Biological Molecules

6. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER FOUR:Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13 and Oxygen-15 Chemistry: An Introduction to Chemistry With Short-Lived Radioisotopes
Philip W. Miller, Koichi Kato, and Bengt Långström

1. Introduction

2. Carbon-11 Chemistry

3. Nitrogen-13 Chemistry

4. Oxygen-15 Chemistry

5. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER FIVE: The Chemistry of Inorganic Nuclides (86Y, 68Ga, 64Cu, 89Zr, 124I)
Eric W. Price and Chris Orvig

1. Introduction: Inorganic Nuclide-Based Radiopharmaceuticals

2. Radiopharmaceutical Design

3. Radiopharmaceutical Stability

4. 86Yttrium Radiometal Ion Properties

5. 68Gallium Radiometal Ion Properties

6. 64Copper Radiometal Ion Properties

7. 89Zirconium Radiometal Ion Properties

8. 124Iodine Nuclide Properties

9. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER SIX:The Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Technetium and Rhenium
Jonathan R. Dilworth and Sofia I. Pascu

1. Introduction

2. Technetium and Rhenium Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

3. Technetium and Rhenium(IV)

4. Technetium and Rhenium(III)

5. Technetium and Rhenium(I)

6. Imaging of Hypoxia with 99mTc

7. Technetium and Rhenium Diphosphonate Complexes

8. The Future for Technetium and Rhenium Radiopharmaceuticals

References

CHAPTER SEVEN:The Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Gallium(III) and Indium(III) for SPECT Imaging
Jonathan R. Dilworth and Sofia I. Pascu

1. Introduction to Gallium and Indium Chemistry

2. Gallium and Indium Complexes and Related Bioconjugates

3. Auger Electron Therapy with 111Indium

4. Prospects for 67Ga and 111In radiochemistry

References

CHAPTER EIGHT: The Chemistry of Lanthanide MRI Contrast Agents
Stephen Faulkner and Octavia A. Blackburn

1. Introduction

2. Gadolinium Complexes as MRI Contrast Agents

3. Minimising the Toxicity of Gadolinium Contrast Agents

4. Rationalising the Behaviour of MRI Contrast Agents

5. Strategies for Increasing Relaxivity

6. Responsive MRI

7. Conclusions and Prospects

References

CHAPTER NINE:Nanoparticulate MRI Contrast Agents
Juan Gallo and Nicholas J. Long

1. Introduction

2. T2 Contrast Agents

3. T1 Contrast Agents

4. T1-T2 dual MRI contrast agents

5. Water Solubilisation

6. Functionalization and Surface Modification

7. Applications

8. Conclusions and Outlook

References

CHAPTER TEN: CEST and PARACEST Agents for Molecular Imaging
Osasere M. Evbuomwan, Enzo Terreno, Silvio Aime, and A. Dean Sherry

1. Introduction

2. Diamagnetic CEST Agents

3. Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (PARACEST) Agents

4. Responsive PARACEST Agents

5. In Vivo Detection of PARACEST Agents

6. Supramolecular CEST Agents

7. LipoCEST Agents

8. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Organic Molecules for Optical Imaging
Michael Hon-Wah Lam, Ga-Lai Law, Chi-Sing Lee and Ka-Leung Wong

1. Introduction

2. Designing Molecular Probes for Bio-imaging

3. Different Types of Organic-based Chromophores and Fluorophores for Bio-imaging

4. Mechanisms of Photophysical Processes and Their Applications in Molecular Imaging and Chemosensing

5. Two/multi-photon Induced Emission and In Vitro/In Vivo Imaging

6. Time-Resolved Imaging

7. Bioluminescence in Molecular Imaging

8. Photoacoustic Imaging

9. Conclusion and Future Perspectives

References

CHAPTER TWELVE: Application of d- and f- Block Fluorescent Cell Imaging Agents
Michael P. Coogan and Simon J. A. Pope

1. Introduction

2. d6 Metal Complexes in Fluorescent Cell Imaging

3. f-Block Imaging Agents

4. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER THIRTEEN:   Lanthanide-based Upconversion Nanophosphors for Bioimaging
Fuyou Li, Wei Feng, Jing Zhou, and Yun Sun

1. Introduction

2. Fabrication of Ln-UCNPs suitable for bioimaging

3. Surface modification of Ln-UCNPs

4. In Vivo Imaging Applications

5. Biodistribution and Toxicity of UCNPs

6. Future Directions

References

CHAPTER FOURTEEN:  Microbubbles: Contrast Agents for Ultrasound and MRI
April M. Chow and Ed X. Wu

1. Introduction

2. Classification of Microbubbles

3. Applications in Ultrasound Imaging

4. Applications in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

5. Applications beyond US imaging and MRI

6. Conclusions: Limitations, Bioeffects and Safety

References

CHAPTER FIFTEEN:Non-Nanoparticle-Based Dual-Modality Imaging Agents
Reinier Hernandez,Tapas R. Nayak, and Hao Hongand Weibo Cai

1. Introduction

2. PET / Optical Agents

3. SPECT / Optical Agents

4. MRI / Optical Agents

5. PET / MRI Agents

6. Conclusions

References

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Chemical Strategies for the Development of Multimodal Imaging Probes Using Nanoparticles
Amanda L. Eckermann, Daniel J. Mastarone, and Thomas J. Meade

1. Introduction

2. Fluorescence-MRI

3. Near-Infrared Fluorescence / MRI

4. NIR-PET

5. Upconversion Luminescence

6. PET-SPECT-CT-MRI

7. Ultrasound

8. Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography (MM-OCT)

9. Conclusions

References

 

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Nicholas Long, PhD, is the Sir Edward Frankland BP Professor of Inorganic Chemistry and Head of the Catalysis, Sustainability and Applied Inorganics section in the Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London. He has published more than 150 scientific papers, including several high impact review articles and a critically-acclaimed textbook titled ‘Metallocenes’. He is Co-Director of the Centre for Doctoral Training in Medical Imaging at Imperial College and King’s College London.

Wing-Tak Wong, PhD, ScD, is Chair Professor of Chemical Technology and Head of the Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He has received three International and US patents for his recent research on lanthanide luminescent materials, and is an author of more than 450 research papers.
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