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The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging

ISBN: 978-1-118-09327-6
656 pages
December 2014
The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging (1118093275) cover image
Covering all the fundamentals of modern imaging methodologies, including their techniques and application within medicine and industry, The Chemistry of Molecular Engineering focuses primarily on the chemistry of probes and imaging agents, as well as chemical methodology for labelling and bioconjugation. Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, this book investigates the chemistry of molecular imaging and helps to educate non-chemists already involved in the area of molecular imaging. It addresses all the major modalities and techniques, such as MRI, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, ultrasound, and fluorescence/optical imaging.
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CHAPTER ONE: An Introduction to Molecular Imaging
Ga-Lai Law and Wing-Tak Wong

1. Introduction

2. What is Positron Emission Tomography (PET)?

3. What is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)?

4. What is Computed Tomography (CT) or Computed Axial Tomography (CAT)?

5. What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)?

6. What is Optical Imaging?

7. What is Ultrasound (US)?

8. Conclusions


CHAPTER TWO: Chemical Methodology for Labelling and Bioconjugation
Lina Cui and Jianghong Rao

1. Introduction

Part I Chemical Methods

2. Through Reactions with Aldehydes or Ketones

3. Through Reactions with Azides

4. Through Reactions with Alkenes

5. Cross-Coupling Reactions

Part II Site-Specific Modification of Protein or Peptide

6. N-terminal Cysteine

7. Aromatic Residues

8. N-terminus of Protein

9. C-terminus of Protein

10. Introduction of Chemical Tags for Site-Specific Labeling on Peptides or Proteins

11. Conclusions


CHAPTER THREE:Recent Developments in the Chemistry of [18F]Fluoride for PET

Dirk Roeda and Frédéric Dollé

1. Introduction

2. Fluorine-18, The Starting Material

3. Reactive [18F] Fluoride

4. The Radiofluorination

5. Labelling of Large Biological Molecules

6. Conclusions


CHAPTER FOUR:Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13 and Oxygen-15 Chemistry: An Introduction to Chemistry With Short-Lived Radioisotopes
Philip W. Miller, Koichi Kato, and Bengt Långström

1. Introduction

2. Carbon-11 Chemistry

3. Nitrogen-13 Chemistry

4. Oxygen-15 Chemistry

5. Conclusions


CHAPTER FIVE: The Chemistry of Inorganic Nuclides (86Y, 68Ga, 64Cu, 89Zr, 124I)
Eric W. Price and Chris Orvig

1. Introduction: Inorganic Nuclide-Based Radiopharmaceuticals

2. Radiopharmaceutical Design

3. Radiopharmaceutical Stability

4. 86Yttrium Radiometal Ion Properties

5. 68Gallium Radiometal Ion Properties

6. 64Copper Radiometal Ion Properties

7. 89Zirconium Radiometal Ion Properties

8. 124Iodine Nuclide Properties

9. Conclusions


CHAPTER SIX:The Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Technetium and Rhenium
Jonathan R. Dilworth and Sofia I. Pascu

1. Introduction

2. Technetium and Rhenium Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

3. Technetium and Rhenium(IV)

4. Technetium and Rhenium(III)

5. Technetium and Rhenium(I)

6. Imaging of Hypoxia with 99mTc

7. Technetium and Rhenium Diphosphonate Complexes

8. The Future for Technetium and Rhenium Radiopharmaceuticals


CHAPTER SEVEN:The Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Gallium(III) and Indium(III) for SPECT Imaging
Jonathan R. Dilworth and Sofia I. Pascu

1. Introduction to Gallium and Indium Chemistry

2. Gallium and Indium Complexes and Related Bioconjugates

3. Auger Electron Therapy with 111Indium

4. Prospects for 67Ga and 111In radiochemistry


CHAPTER EIGHT: The Chemistry of Lanthanide MRI Contrast Agents
Stephen Faulkner and Octavia A. Blackburn

1. Introduction

2. Gadolinium Complexes as MRI Contrast Agents

3. Minimising the Toxicity of Gadolinium Contrast Agents

4. Rationalising the Behaviour of MRI Contrast Agents

5. Strategies for Increasing Relaxivity

6. Responsive MRI

7. Conclusions and Prospects


CHAPTER NINE:Nanoparticulate MRI Contrast Agents
Juan Gallo and Nicholas J. Long

1. Introduction

2. T2 Contrast Agents

3. T1 Contrast Agents

4. T1-T2 dual MRI contrast agents

5. Water Solubilisation

6. Functionalization and Surface Modification

7. Applications

8. Conclusions and Outlook


CHAPTER TEN: CEST and PARACEST Agents for Molecular Imaging
Osasere M. Evbuomwan, Enzo Terreno, Silvio Aime, and A. Dean Sherry

1. Introduction

2. Diamagnetic CEST Agents

3. Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (PARACEST) Agents

4. Responsive PARACEST Agents

5. In Vivo Detection of PARACEST Agents

6. Supramolecular CEST Agents

7. LipoCEST Agents

8. Conclusions


CHAPTER ELEVEN: Organic Molecules for Optical Imaging
Michael Hon-Wah Lam, Ga-Lai Law, Chi-Sing Lee and Ka-Leung Wong

1. Introduction

2. Designing Molecular Probes for Bio-imaging

3. Different Types of Organic-based Chromophores and Fluorophores for Bio-imaging

4. Mechanisms of Photophysical Processes and Their Applications in Molecular Imaging and Chemosensing

5. Two/multi-photon Induced Emission and In Vitro/In Vivo Imaging

6. Time-Resolved Imaging

7. Bioluminescence in Molecular Imaging

8. Photoacoustic Imaging

9. Conclusion and Future Perspectives


CHAPTER TWELVE: Application of d- and f- Block Fluorescent Cell Imaging Agents
Michael P. Coogan and Simon J. A. Pope

1. Introduction

2. d6 Metal Complexes in Fluorescent Cell Imaging

3. f-Block Imaging Agents

4. Conclusions


CHAPTER THIRTEEN:   Lanthanide-based Upconversion Nanophosphors for Bioimaging
Fuyou Li, Wei Feng, Jing Zhou, and Yun Sun

1. Introduction

2. Fabrication of Ln-UCNPs suitable for bioimaging

3. Surface modification of Ln-UCNPs

4. In Vivo Imaging Applications

5. Biodistribution and Toxicity of UCNPs

6. Future Directions


CHAPTER FOURTEEN:  Microbubbles: Contrast Agents for Ultrasound and MRI
April M. Chow and Ed X. Wu

1. Introduction

2. Classification of Microbubbles

3. Applications in Ultrasound Imaging

4. Applications in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

5. Applications beyond US imaging and MRI

6. Conclusions: Limitations, Bioeffects and Safety


CHAPTER FIFTEEN:Non-Nanoparticle-Based Dual-Modality Imaging Agents
Reinier Hernandez,Tapas R. Nayak, and Hao Hongand Weibo Cai

1. Introduction

2. PET / Optical Agents

3. SPECT / Optical Agents

4. MRI / Optical Agents

5. PET / MRI Agents

6. Conclusions


CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Chemical Strategies for the Development of Multimodal Imaging Probes Using Nanoparticles
Amanda L. Eckermann, Daniel J. Mastarone, and Thomas J. Meade

1. Introduction

2. Fluorescence-MRI

3. Near-Infrared Fluorescence / MRI


5. Upconversion Luminescence


7. Ultrasound

8. Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography (MM-OCT)

9. Conclusions



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