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Free Space Optical Networks for Ultra-Broad Band Services

ISBN: 978-1-118-10422-4
240 pages
September 2011, Wiley-IEEE Press
Free Space Optical Networks for Ultra-Broad Band Services (1118104226) cover image
This book provides a comprehensive description of an optical communications technology known as free space optical—a next-generation communications network that uses optical signals through the atmosphere instead of fiber, RF, or microwaves. This technology potentially offers more complex ultrabandwidth communication services simultaneously to multiple users and in a very short time, compared to fiber optic technology. This text presents established and new advancements drawn from the latest research and development in components, networking, operation, and practices.

This book describes the FSO network concepts in simple language. It provides comprehensive coverage in an easy-to-understand, progressive style that starts from the physics of the atmosphere and how it affects optical communications; continues with the design of a network node; and concludes with fiberless network applications from point-to-point to mesh topology. Important areas discussed include:

  • Propagation of light in the atmosphere and phenomena that affect light propagation
  • FSO transceiver design
  • Point-to-point FSO systems
  • Ring FSO systems
  • Mesh-FSO systems and integrating the Mesh-FSO with the public network
  • WDM Mesh-FSO
  • FSO network security
  • FSO-specific applications

To meet the needs of both academia and industry, key mathematical formulas are presented along with descriptions, while extensive mathematical analyses are minimized or avoided. Free Space Optical Networks for Ultra-Broad Band Services serves as an ideal text for network communication professionals who enter the free space optical communication field, graduate students majoring in optical communications, optical communication engineers, researchers, managers, and consultants.

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Preface xv

Acknowledgments xix

About the Author xxi

INTRODUCTION 1

1 PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN UNGUIDED MEDIA 11

1.1 Introduction 11

1.2 Laser Beam Characteristics 12

1.3 Atmospheric Layers 28

1.4 Atmospheric Effects on Optical Signals 30

1.5 Coding for Atmospheric Optical Propagation 44

1.6 LIDAR 44

2 FSO TRANSCEIVER DESIGN 51

2.1 Introduction 51

2.2 Light Sources 52

2.3 Modulators 61

2.4 Photodetectors and Receivers 63

2.5 Optical Amplifi cation 70

2.6 Optical Signal to Noise Ratio 76

2.7 Acquisition, Pointing and Tracking 77

2.8 Adaptive and Active Optics 83

2.9 Laser Safety 86

2.10 Node Housing and Mounting 87

3 POINT-TO-POINT FSO SYSTEMS 91

3.1 Introduction 91

3.2 Simple PtP Design 93

3.3 Point-to-Point with Transponder Nodes 98

3.4 Hybrid FSO and RF 101

3.5 FSO Point-to-Multipoint 102

3.6 FSO Point-to-Mobile 103

4 RING FSO SYSTEMS 106

4.1 Introduction 106

4.2 Ring Topologies and Service Protection 107

4.3 Ring Nodes with Add-Drop 109

4.4 Concatenated Rings 111

4.5 Ring to Network Connectivity 111

5 MESH FSO SYSTEMS 113

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 FSO Nodes for Mesh Topology 114

5.3 Hybrid Mesh-FSO with RF 120

5.4 Hybrid FSO-Fiber Networks 121

6 WDM MESH-FSO 124

6.1 Introduction 124

6.2 Light Attributes 125

6.3 Optical Media 125

6.4 Interaction of Light with Matter 127

6.5 Medium Birefringence 133

6.6 DWDM and CWDM Optical Channels 134

6.7 WDM FSO Links 135

6.8 WDM Mesh FSO Networks 135

6.9 Service Protection in Mesh-FSO Networks 138

6.10 WDM Mesh-FSO versus EM-Wireless 140

7 INTEGRATING MESH-FSO WITH THE PUBLIC NETWORK 143

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 The Ethernet Protocol 145

7.3 The TCP/IP Protocol 151

7.4 The ATM Protocol 154

7.5 Wireless Protocols 158

7.6 The Next Generation SONET/SDH Protocol 164

7.7 Next Generation SONET/SDH Networks 170

7.8 Next Generation Protocols 175

7.9 The GMPLS Protocol 177

7.10 The GFP Protocol 179

7.11 The LCAS Protocol 184

7.12 The LAPS Protocol 184

7.13 Any Protocol over SONET/SDH 186

8 FSO NETWORK SECURITY 191

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Cryptography 193

8.3 Security Levels 194

8.4 Security Layers 195

8.5 FSO Inherent Security Features 198

8.6 Conclusion 200

9 FSO SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS 202

9.1 Introduction 202

9.2 FSO Networks for Highway Assisted Communications 203

9.3 Mesh-FSO in Disaster Areas 203

9.4 Visual Light Communication 204

9.5 Conclusion 207

References 207

Acronyms 209

Index 218

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Stamatios V. Kartalopoulus, PhD, is the Williams Professor in Telecommunications Networking at the ECE/TCOM graduate program at the University of Oklahoma. He has been a Distinguished Speaker of IEEE and has been invited to give keynote speeches internationally. For twenty-two years prior, Dr. Kartalopoulos defined, led, and managed research and development teams in Bell Laboratories, where he received the President's Award and other awards for excellence. A Fellow of IEEE, he has published more than 250 scientific papers and ten books, and has been awarded twenty patents. In 2010, he received the 2009 Choice Award for Outstanding Academic Titles for his book Security of Information and Communication Networks (Wiley/IEEE Press), and also received the award for Top Cited Article in the period 2005-2010 for his FTTH/B paper in Optical Systems and Networks (Vol. 2, 2005).
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