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Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design: Examples of Pratical Applications

ISBN: 978-1-118-10479-8
250 pages
March 2012, Wiley-IEEE Press
Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design: Examples of Pratical Applications (111810479X) cover image
Ultrasonic testing is a relatively new branch of science and industry. The development of ultrasonic testing started in the late 1920s. At the beginning, the fundamentals of this method were borrowed from basic physics, geometrical and wave optics, acoustics and seismology. Later it became clear that some of these theories and calculation methods could not always explain the phenomena observed in many specific cases of ultrasonic testing. Without knowing the nuances of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the test object it is impossible to design effective inspection technique and search units for it realization.

This book clarifies the theoretical differences of ultrasonics from the other wave propagation theories presenting both  basics of physics in the wave propagation, elementary mathematic and advanced practical applications.  Almost every specific technique presented in this book is proofed by actual  experimental data and examples of calculations.

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Foreword xiii

Preface xv

List of Figures xxi

List of Tables xxxi

1. Introduction 1

1.1. General Characteristic of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Methods, 1

1.2. Ultrasonic Wave Type Overview, 6

2. Introduction to Search Unit Design 13

2.1. Principles of Search Unit Design, 13

2.2. Considerations for Transducer Selection, 32

2.3. Calculation of Straight Beam Transducer Directional Characteristic, 57

3. Single Angle Beam Probe Design 65

3.1. Basics of Probe Design, 65

3.2. Considerations Related to the Practical Concept of Wedge Design, 67

3.3. Measurement of Refracted Angles, 69

3.4. Deviation of Refracted Angle Related to Thick Wall Test Object Inspection, 73

4. Dual Straight and Angle Beam Probe Design 77

4.1. Principles of Dual Straight Beam Probe Design, 77

4.2. Sequence of Wedge Calculation, 78

4.3. Sensitivity Curves, 81

4.4. Example of Dual Straight Beam Probe Design, 82

4.5. Basics of Dual Angle Beam Probe Design, 86

4.6. Wedge Conceptual Design, 87

4.7. Wedge Design for Inspection of a Test Object with Flat and Parallel Surfaces, 88

4.8. Wedge Design for the Inspection of a Test Object with a Curved Surface, 92

5. Multiple Crystal Probe Design 99

5.1. Concept of "Packaging," 99

5.2. Example of Triplex Probe Design, 103

6. Technique Development and Probe Design for TOFD Method Application 111

6.1. Introduction to Techniques Based on Diffraction Phenomena, 111

6.2. TOFD Forward Scattering Technique, 113

6.3. Examples of Probe Calculation for Curved Surface Test Object Inspection, 118

6.4. Probe Design for TOFD Back Scattering Technique, 123

7. Technique Development and Probe Design for Cylindrical Rod Inspection 135

7.1. Boundary Effect, 135

7.2. Symmetric and Asymmetric Cylindrical Rod-Guided Waves, 136

7.3. Technique Development and Probe Design for Inspection of Stepped Shaft, 140

7.4. Technique Development and Probe Design for Stud Inspection, 144

7.5. Notch Dimension Calculation for Stud Calibration Standards, 157

8. Technique Development and Probe Design for Hollow Cylinder Inspection 163

8.1. Lamb Wave Generation, 163

8.2. Technique Development and Probe Design for the Inspection of Hollow Cylinders from the Inside Surface, 176

8.3. Technique Development and Probe Design for the Inspection of Hollow Cylinders from the Outside Surface, 184

9. Technique Development and Focused Probe Design for Immersion Method Inspection 219

9.1. Basics of Focused Immersion Probe Design, 219

9.2. Geometric and Acoustic Parameter Calculation, 224

9.3. Straight Beam Spherical Focused Probe Design, 226

10. Technique Development and Probe Design for Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzle Inner Radius Inspection 237

10.1. Inspection Zone Configuration, 237

10.2. Inspection from the Outside Nozzle Surfaces: Contact Method, 238

10.3. Example of Wedge Design for Inner Radius Inspection from the Outer Surface, 240

10.4. Inspection from the Inside Nozzle Surface: Immersion Method, 243

11. Search Unit Functioning Test 247

11.1. Evaluation of Certain Characteristics of a Search Unit, 247

11.2. Measurement of Specific Parameters of Selected Search Units, 250

Appendix A System of Units and Symbols That Are Accepted for This Book 257

Appendix B American Societies Engaged in Activities Related to Nondestructive Testing and Serving the Needs of NDT Professionals 261

Appendix C An Example of Applying the Third Critical Angle 265

Appendix D WesDyne International Computer Program for Lamb Wave Dispersion Curve Calculation 267

Glossary of Terms Specific to This Book 273

Bibliography 279

About the Author 283

Index 285

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MARK V. BROOK, PhD, received his doctoral degree from Leningrad Waterway Transportation Institute, now renamed as St. Petersburg State University of Water Communications. He worked as an associate professor and was in charge of the Nondestructive Testing Laboratory there. Dr. Brook has worked for Combustion Engineering, ABB, and Westinghouse Electric Company as a consultant in the research and development of ultrasonic nondestructive testing. He holds four patents and has written numerous articles. Dr. Brook has taken part in numerous projects for developing techniques and designing probes for ultrasonic inspection of test objects, mostly for nuclear power plants.
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