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The Supplement to A Legal Guide for Student Affairs Professionals, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-12351-5
144 pages
August 2011, Jossey-Bass
The Supplement to A Legal Guide for Student Affairs Professionals, 2nd Edition (1118123514) cover image
Based on the latest rulings, court cases, and legal actions that bear on the conduct of higher education, this student affairs supplement provides updated information regarding current rulings and recent cases for student affairs practitioners and graduate students in student affairs administration courses.

Designed specifically for practitioners, this suppliment is the most updated and easy-to-use volume for student affairs officers and students.

Topics include the latest updates on:

  • Higher Education Opportunity Act
  • litigation involving online courses or programs
  • new cases involving students with disabilities
  • new federal rules about federal student loan programs
  • new developments in student discipline
  • student suicide
  • searching residence halls
  • campus security issues
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Notice of Web Site and Periodic Supplements v

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

About the Authors xvii

PART ONE PERSPECTIVES AND FOUNDATIONS.

1. Overview of Higher Education Law 1

1.3 The Governance of Higher Education 1

1.3.1 Basic concepts and distinctions 1

1.3.3 External governance 1

1.4 Sources of Higher Education Law 2

1.4.2 External sources of law 2

1.5 The Public-Private Dichotomy 2

1.5.2 The state action doctrine 2

1.6 Religion and the Public-Private Dichotomy 3

1.6.3 Governmental support for religious institutions 3

1.6.4 Religious autonomy rights of individuals in public postsecondary institutions 7

Selected Annotated Bibliography 9

2. Legal Planning and Dispute Resolution 10

2.2 Litigation in the Courts 10

2.2.3 Judicial (academic) deference 10

2.4 Institutional Management of Liability Risk 10

2.4.1 Overview and suggestions 10

Selected Annotated Bibliography 11

PART TWO THE COLLEGE, ITS GOVERNING BOARD, AND ITS EMPLOYEES.

3. The College and Its Trustees 12

3.1 The Question of Authority 12

3.1.1 Overview 12

3.1.2 Trustee authority 12

3.2 Institutional Tort Liability 13

3.2.1 Overview 13

3.2.2 Negligence 13

3.2.2.4 Liability for cocurricular and social activities 14

3.2.2.5 Student suicide 14

3.2.3 Educational malpractice 16

3.4 Institutional Liability for Violating Federal Constitutional Rights (Section 1983 Liability) 16

Selected Annotated Bibliography 16

4. The College and Its Employees 18

4.2 Employment Contracts 18

4.2.3 Coaches’ contracts (new section) 18

4.3 Collective Bargaining 19

4.3.3 Collective bargaining and antidiscrimination laws 19

4.4 Personal Liability of Employees 20

4.4.2 Tort liability 20

4.4.4 Constitutional liability (personal liability under Section 1983) 21

4.4.4.1 Qualifi ed immunity 21

4.4.4.2 Issues on the merits: State-created dangers 21

4.5 Employment Discrimination 21

4.5.2 Sources of law 21

4.5.2.1 Title VII 21

4.5.2.2 Equal Pay Act 24

4.5.2.5 Americans with Disabilities Act and Rehabilitation Act of 1973 25

4.5.2.6 Age Discrimination in Employment Act 26

4.5.2.7 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (new subsection) 28

4.5.2.8 Constitutional prohibitions against employment discrimination 28

4.5.2.11 Transgender (new subsection) 29

4.7 Application of Nondiscrimination Laws to Religious Institutions 29

4.8 Faculty Academic Freedom and Freedom of Expression 30

4.8.1 General concepts and principles 30

4.8.1.1 Faculty freedom of expression in general 30

4.8.1.6 “Institutional” academic freedom 31

4.8.2 Academic freedom in teaching 33

4.8.2.1 In general 33

4.8.2.2 The classroom 34

Selected Annotated Bibliography 35

PART THREE THE COLLEGE AND ITS STUDENTS.

5. The Legal Status of Students 37

5.2 The Contractual Rights of Students 37

5.3 Student Academic Freedom 40

5.4 Students’ Legal Relationships with Other Students 41

5.5 Student Files and Records 42

5.5.1 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) 42

5.5.2 State law 43

Selected Annotated Bibliography 44

6. Admissions and Financial Aid 45

6.1 Admissions 45

6.1.1 Basic legal requirements 45

6.1.4 The principle of nondiscrimination 46

6.1.4.1 Race 46

6.1.4.2 Sex 46

6.1.4.3 Disability 47

6.1.4.4 Immigration status 47

6.1.5 Affi rmative action programs 47

6.2 Financial Aid 48

6.2.1 General principles 48

6.2.2 Federal programs 48

6.2.4 Affi rmative action in fi nancial aid programs 51

6.2.5 Discrimination against nonresidents 51

6.2.6 Discrimination against aliens 52

6.2.6.2 Undocumented aliens 52

Selected Annotated Bibliography 53

7. The Campus Community 55

7.1 Student Housing 55

7.1.1 Housing regulations 55

7.1.2 Searches and seizures 57

7.2 Campus Computer Networks 58

7.2.1 Freedom of Speech 58

7.2.2 Liability issues 58

7.3 Campus Security 61

7.3.1 Security offi cers 61

7.3.2 Protecting students against violent crime 62

7.3.3 Federal statutes and campus security 63

7.4 Other Support Services 63

7.4.2 Health services 63

Selected Annotated Bibliography 63

8. Academic Policies and Concerns 65

8.2 Awarding of Grades and Degrees 65

8.3 Sexual Harassment of Students by Faculty Members 68

8.4 Evaluating Students with Disabilities 69

8.4.1 Overview 69

8.4.4 Requests for programmatic or instructional accommodations 70

9. The Disciplinary Process 72

9.1 Disciplinary and Grievance Systems 72

9.1.3 Codes of student conduct 72

9.1.4 Judicial systems 72

9.2 Disciplinary Rules and Regulations 73

9.2.2 Public institutions 73

9.2.4 Disciplining students with psychiatric illnesses 74

9.3 Procedures for Suspension, Dismissal, and Other Sanctions 74

9.3.2 Public institutions: Disciplinary sanctions 74

9.3.2.3 Hearing 74

9.3.3 Public institutions: The legal distinction between disciplinary sanctions and academic sanctions 75

Selected Annotated Bibliography 76

10. Students' Freedom of Expression 77

10.1 Student Protests and Freedom of Speech 77

10.1.1 Student free speech in general 77

10.1.3 Regulation of student protest 77

10.2 Speech Codes and the Problem of Hate Speech 79

10.2.2 The case law on hate speech and speech codes 79

10.2.3 Guidelines for dealing with hate speech on campus 80

PART FOUR THE COLLEGE AND ITS STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS.

11. Student Organizations and Their Members 81

11.1 Student Organizations 81

11.1.4 Principle of nondiscrimination 81

11.2 Fraternities and Sororities 88

11.2.2 Institutional recognition and regulation of fraternal organizations 88

11.3 The Student Press 90

11.3.1 General principles 90

12. Athletics 93

12.3 Athletes’ Freedom of Speech 93

12.6 Sex Discrimination 93

Selected Annotated Bibliography 97

PART FIVE THE COLLEGE AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD.

13. Local and State Governments 98

13.1 Local Governments and the Local Community 98

13.1.2 Community access to the college’s campus 98

13.1.2.2 Exclusion of speakers and events 98

13.1.2.3 Trespass statutes and ordinances, and related campus regulations 98

13.2 State Government 99

13.2.5 Open-records laws 99

13.2.7 Gun possession laws (new section) 100

14. The Federal Government 103

14.2 Copyright Law 103

14.2.2 The fair use doctrine 103

14.5 Americans with Disabilities Act 105

14.9 Civil Rights Compliance 105

14.9.1 General considerations 105

14.9.3 Title IX 106

15. Private Entities 108

15.2 Accrediting Agencies 108

15.3 Athletic Associations and Conferences 108

15.3.2 Federal constitutional constraints 108

15.3.4 Antitrust laws 109

Case Index 111

Statute Index 115

Subject Index 117

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WILLIAM A. KAPLIN is professor of law emeritus at The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, where he also served as special counsel to the Office of General Counsel. He is now senior fellow at the Center for Excellence in Higher Education Law and Policy, Stetson University College of Law.

BARBARA A. LEE is professor of human resource management at Rutgers University’s School of Management and Labor Relations and of counsel to the law firm of Edwards Wildman Palmer. An attorney, she teaches employment law and higher education law.

Together they are the authors of The Law of Higher Education, now in its fifth edition.

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