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The Cerebellum: Learning Movement, Language, and Social Skills

ISBN: 978-1-118-12563-2
240 pages
October 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
The Cerebellum: Learning Movement, Language, and Social Skills (1118125630) cover image
The Cerebellum provides a concise, accessible overview of modern data on physiology and function of the cerebellum as it relates to learning, plasticity, and neurodegenerative diseases. Encompassing anatomy and physiology, theoretical work, cellular mechanisms, clinical research, and disorders, the book covers learning and plasticity while introducing the anatomy of the cerebellum. Known and proposed "functions of the cerebellum" are addressed on clinical, physiological, cellular, and computational levels, providing academics, researchers, medical students, and graduate students with an invaluable reference.
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Acknowledgments ix

Introduction xi

Section I: The Neuronal Machine 1

1 Structure and Physiology 3

Anatomy of the Cerebellar Cortex 3

Physiology of the Cerebellar Cortex 6

Subdivisions of the Cerebellum 10

The Gatekeepers: Vestibular and Deep Cerebellar Nuclei 13

Afferent Connections of the Cerebellum 15

Efferent Connections of the Cerebellum 19

References 21

Further Reading 25

2 Operating the Machine 27

Learning in the Cerebellar Cortex 28

Pattern Recognition by the Cerebellum 30

Neural Networks 32

The Cerebellum as Part of a “Control System” 32

Multiple Sites for Cerebellar Learning? 34

The Cerebellar Clock 36

Conclusions 38

References 38

Further Reading 40

3 Plasticity in the Cerebellar Cortex 41

Cerebellar Long-Term Depression 41

The Calcium Trigger 42

The Synaptic Conversation 44

The Memory Trace 46

What About Potentiation? 48

Other Sites of Plasticity 51

Interneurons 52

Conclusions 55

References 55

Further Reading 59

4 Adjusting the Memory Trace 61

Consolidation Mechanisms 61

Memory Transfer and Synaptic Plasticity 63

Mossy-Fiber Collaterals in the DCN 64

Intrinsic Plasticity in the DCN 66

Other Changes to the Memory Trace 67

References 68

Section II: Motor Learning 71

5 Learning a New Motor Response 73

Learning in the Cerebellar Cortex 75

Cerebellar LTD and Learning 76

The Engram for the NMR 79

Conclusions 82

References 82

Further Reading 85

6 Recalibration for Fine Motor Control 87

A Stable Platform for Vision 87

Adjusting an Orienting Movement 95

Adjusting a Tracking Movement 97

Conclusions 99

References 99

Further Reading 102

7 Perfecting Limb Movements by Motor Learning 103

Updating Dynamic Models 104

Throwing and Pointing 107

Sequence Learning 109

Stepping and Changes to gait 111

The Agile Mouse 113

Conclusions 114

References 114

Further Reading 117

Section III: Precision Control 119

8 Coordination 121

Precise Ocular Coordination 122

Coordinating the Eyes and the Head 126

Error Correction for Limb Movements 127

Planning for Multiple Joints 129

Internal Models Revisited 132

Conclusions 134

References 134

Further Reading 137

9 Balance and Locomotion 139

Cerebellar Ataxia 140

Signals from the Inner Ear 142

Coordinating Locomotion 146

Navigation 148

Conclusions 150

References 150

Further Reading 152

10 Timing 153

Timing Using Discharge Rates 154

Timing Using Synchronous Firing 161

Conclusions 165

References 166

Further Reading 168

Section IV: Interpreting the World 169

11 Intelligence and Language 173

General Intelligence 175

Executive Function 177

Problem-solving 181

Speech and Language 183

Possible Mechanisms 187

Conclusions 188

References 188

Further Reading 191

12 Sensing, Feeling, and Interacting 193

Sensory Perception 194

Attending to theWorld 198

Prediction 200

Mental Imagery 202

Social Skills 204

Conclusions 208

References 208

Further Reading 211

Summary: What does the cerebellum do? 213

Index 215

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