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RF Circuit Design, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-12849-7
860 pages
October 2012
RF Circuit Design, 2nd Edition (1118128494) cover image
Summarizes the schemes and technologies in RF circuit design, describes the basic parameters of an RF system and the fundamentals of RF system design, and presents an introduction of the individual RF circuit block design.

Forming the backbone of today's mobile and satellite communications networks, radio frequency (RF) components and circuits are incorporated into everything that transmits or receives a radio wave, such as mobile phones, radio, WiFi, and walkie talkies. RF Circuit Design, Second Edition immerses practicing and aspiring industry professionals in the complex world of RF design.

Completely restructured and reorganized with new content, end-of-chapter exercises, illustrations, and an appendix, the book presents integral information in three complete sections:

  • Part One explains the different methodologies between RF and digital circuit design and covers voltage and power transportation, impedance matching in narrow-band case and wide-band case, gain of a raw device, measurement, and grounding. It also goes over equipotentiality and current coupling on ground surface, as well as layout and packaging, manufacturability of product design, and radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC).
  • Part Two includes content on the main parameters and system analysis in RF circuit design, the fundamentals of differential pair and common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), Balun, and system-on-a-chip (SOC).
  • Part Three covers low-noise amplifier (LNA), power amplifier (PA), voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), mixers, and tunable filters.

RF Circuit Design, Second Edition is an ideal book for engineers and managers who work in RF circuit design and for courses in electrical or electronic engineering.

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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xix

PART 1 DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES AND SKILLS 1

1 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RF AND DIGITAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 3

1.1 Controversy 3

1.2 Difference of RF and Digital Block in a Communication System 6

1.3 Conclusions 9

1.4 Notes for High-Speed Digital Circuit Design 9

2 REFLECTION AND SELF-INTERFERENCE 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Voltage Delivered from a Source to a Load 16

2.3 Power Delivered from a Source to a Load 23

2.4 Impedance Conjugate Matching 33

2.5 Additional Effect of Impedance Matching 42

3 IMPEDANCE MATCHING IN THE NARROW-BAND CASE 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Impedance Matching by Means of Return Loss Adjustment 63

3.3 Impedance Matching Network Built by One Part 68

3.4 Impedance Matching Network Built by Two Parts 74

3.5 Impedance Matching Network Built By Three Parts 84

3.6 Impedance Matching When ZS Or ZL Is Not 50 85

3.7 Parts In An Impedance Matching Network 93

4 IMPEDANCE MATCHING IN THE WIDEBAND CASE 131

4.1 Appearance of Narrow and Wideband Return Loss on a Smith Chart 131

4.2 Impedance Variation Due to the Insertion of One Part Per Arm or Per Branch 136

4.3 Impedance Variation Due to the Insertion of Two Parts Per Arm or Per Branch 145

4.4 Partial Impedance Matching for an IQ (in Phase Quadrature) Modulator in a UWB (Ultra Wide Band) System 151

4.5 Discussion of Passive Wideband Impedance Matching Network 174

5 IMPEDANCE AND GAIN OF A RAW DEVICE 181

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 Miller Effect 183

5.3 Small-Signal Model of a Bipolar Transistor 187

5.4 Bipolar Transistor with CE (Common Emitter) Configuration 190

5.5 Bipolar Transistor with CB (Common Base) Configuration 204

5.6 Bipolar Transistor with CC (Common Collector) Configuration 214

5.7 Small-Signal Model of a MOSFET 221

5.8 Similarity Between a Bipolar Transistor and a MOSFET 225

5.9 MOSFET with CS (Common Source) Configuration 235

5.10 MOSFET with CG (Common Gate) Configuration 244

5.11 MOSFET with CD (Common Drain) Configuration 249

5.12 Comparison of Transistor Configuration of Single-stage Amplifiers with Different Configurations 252

6 IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT 259

6.1 Introduction 259

6.2 Scalar and Vector Voltage Measurement 260

6.3 Direct Impedance Measurement by a Network Analyzer 263

6.4 Alternative Impedance Measurement by Network Analyzer 272

6.5 Impedance Measurement Using a Circulator 276

7 GROUNDING 281

7.1 Implication of Grounding 281

7.2 Possible Grounding Problems Hidden in a Schematic 283

7.3 Imperfect or Inappropriate Grounding Examples 284

7.4 'Zero' Capacitor 290

7.5 Quarter Wavelength of Microstrip Line 300

8 EQUIPOTENTIALITY AND CURRENT COUPLING ON THE GROUND SURFACE 325

8.1 Equipotentiality on the Ground Surface 325

8.2 Forward and Return Current Coupling 335

8.3 PCB or IC Chip with Multimetallic Layers 344

9 LAYOUT 349

9.1 Difference in Layout between an Individual Block and a System 349

9.2 Primary Considerations of a PCB 350

9.3 Layout of a PCB for Testing 352

9.4 VIA Modeling 355

9.5 Runner 360

9.6 Parts 369

9.7 Free Space 371

10 MANUFACTURABILITY OF PRODUCT DESIGN 377

10.1 Introduction 377

10.2 Implication of 6σ Design 379

10.3 Approaching 6σ Design 383

10.4 Monte Carlo Analysis 386

11 RFIC (RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUIT) 401

11.1 Interference and Isolation 401

11.2 Shielding for an RF Module by a Metallic Shielding Box 403

11.3 Strong Desirability to Develop RFIC 405

11.4 Interference going along IC Substrate Path 406

11.5 Solution for Interference Coming from Sky 411

11.6 Common Grounding Rules for RF Module and RFIC Design 412

11.7 Bottlenecks in RFIC Design 414

11.8 Calculating of Quarter Wavelength 420

PART 2 RF SYSTEM 427

12 MAIN PARAMETERS AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN RF CIRCUIT DESIGN 429

12.1 Introduction 429

12.2 Power Gain 431

12.3 Noise 441

12.4 Nonlinearity 453

12.5 Other Parameters 480

12.6 Example of RF System Analysis 482

13 SPECIALITY OF "‘ZERO IF"’ SYSTEM 501

13.1 Why Differential Pair? 501

13.2 Can DC Offset be Blocked out by a Capacitor? 508

13.3 Chopping Mixer 511

13.4 DC Offset Cancellation by Calibration 516

13.5 Remark on DC Offset Cancellation 517

14 DIFFERENTIAL PAIRS 521

14.1 Fundamentals of Differential Pairs 521

14.2 CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio) 533

15 RF BALUN 547

15.1 Introduction 547

15.2 Transformer Balun 549

15.3 LC Balun 571

15.4 Microstrip Line Balun 580

15.5 Mixing Type of Balun 583

16 SOC (SYSTEM-ON-A-CHIP) AND NEXT 611

16.1 SOC 611

16.2 What is Next 612

PART 3 INDIVIDUAL RF BLOCKS 625

17 LNA (LOW-NOISE AMPLIFIER) 627

17.1 Introduction 627

17.2 Single-Ended Single Device LNA 628

17.3 Single-Ended Cascode LNA 662

17.4 LNA with AGC (Automatic Gain Control) 684

18 MIXER 695

18.1 Introduction 695

18.2 Passive Mixer 698

18.3 Active Mixer 706

18.4 Design Schemes 717

19 TUNABLE FILTER 731

19.1 Tunable Filter in A Communication System 731

19.2 Coupling between two Tank Circuits 733

19.3 Circuit Description 738

19.4 Effect of Second Coupling 739

19.5 Performance 743

20 VCO (VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR) 749

20.1 "Three-Point" Types of Oscillator 749

20.2 Other Single-Ended Oscillators 755

20.3 VCO and PLL (Phase Lock Loop) 759

20.4 Design Example of a Single-Ended VCO 769

20.5 Differential VCO and Quad-Phases VCO 778

21 PA (POWER AMPLIFIER) 789

21.1 Classification of PA 789

21.2 Single-Ended PA 794

21.3 Single-Ended PA IC Design 798

21.4 Push–Pull PA Design 799

21.5 PA with Temperature Compensation 822

21.6 PA with Output Power Control 823

21.7 Linear PA 824

References 828

Further Reading 828

Exercises 829

Answers 829

INDEX 833

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RICHARD CHI-HSI LI has more than twenty years experience with RF circuit design and has worked for companies such as Motorola, Texas Instruments, and RCA. Professor Li has taught many courses and given more than sixty lectures on RF circuit design in recent years.
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