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Solar Energy: Technologies and Project Delivery for Buildings

ISBN: 978-1-118-13924-0
320 pages
September 2013
Solar Energy: Technologies and Project Delivery for Buildings (1118139240) cover image

Description

Solar Energy is an authoritative reference on the design of solar energy systems in building projects, with applications, operating principles, and simple tools for the construction, engineering, and design professional. The book simplifies the solar design and engineering process, providing sample documentation and special tools that provide all the information needed for the complete design of a solar energy system for buildings to enable mainstream MEP and design firms, and not just solar energy specialists, to meet the growing demand for solar energy systems in building projects.

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Table of Contents

Foreword • vii

Preface • ix

Acknowledgments • xi

CHAPTER 1 Delivering Solar Energy Projects • 1

History and Current Use of Solar Energy 1

Advantages of Solar Energy 2

Solar Energy Project Delivery Process 6

Integration of Solar Energy into the Existing

Infrastructure 17

CHAPTER 2 The Solar Energy Resource • 27

Structure of the Sun 27

Nuclear Fusion: The Source of the Sun’s Power 28

The Spectral Nature of Solar Radiation 28

Position of the Sun in the Sky 30

Direct Beam, Diffuse, and Global Solar Insolation

in the Plane of a Solar Collector Surface 34

Incident Angle of Direct Beam Sun on a Surface 35

The Effect of Shade 42

Solar Resource Measurement 43

Solar Resource Maps and Data 45

Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) Weather Data 46

Forecasting the Solar Resource Hours or Days

into the Future 46

Diagnosis of Solar Energy System Performance Using

Solar Resource Data 47

Computer Tools for Analysis of Solar Position and Solar

Resources 47

Standards Related to Solar Resource Assessment 49

CHAPTER 3 Photovoltaics (PV, Solar Electricity) • 51

Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 54

Voltage and Current Characteristics of PV Devices (the i-v curve) 56

Open-Circuit Voltage and Operating Voltage of a PV Cell 56

Dependence of Voltage and Current on Temperature 60

Different Types of Photovoltaic Devices 63

Standard Ratings and Performance Indicators for PV Modules 69

Energy Balance for a PV Module, Nominal Operating cell

Temperature (NOCT) 72

Power Output of a PV Module 73

Photovoltaic System Schematic Design 74

Photovoltaic System Components 78

Estimating the Cost of a Photovoltaic System 88

Estimating Electric Use and Solar Fraction 92

Recommended Applications 94

Simple Hand Calculation of Photovoltaic System Size and Energy Delivery 95

Estimating the Energy Cost Savings of a Photovoltaic (Solar Electric) System 97

Computer Tools for Analysis of Photovoltaic

Systems 106

Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Modules and Systems 112

Operation and Maintenance of Photovoltaic Systems 114

Case Studies of Photovoltaic System Installations 115

Example: Procurement Specifications for Grid-Tied Solar Electric (Photovoltaic) System 118

CHAPTER 4 Solar Water Heating • 128

Different Types of Water-Heating Solar Collectors 131

Solar Water Heating System Schematic Design 143

Solar Water Heating System Components 151

Estimating the Cost of a Solar Water

Heating System 165

Estimating Building Hot Water Use and Solar Fraction 169

Recommended Applications 171

Simple Hand Calculation of Solar Water Heating System Size and Energy Delivery 172

System Thermodynamics and Computer Tools for Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems 179

Codes and Standards for Solar Water Heaters 185

Operation and Maintenance of Solar Water Heating Systems 187

Case Studies of Solar Water Heating System Installations 188

Example: Procurement Specifications for a Solar Water Heating System 191

CHAPTER 5 Solar Ventilation Air Preheating • 200

Operating Principle of the Transpired Air-Heating Solar Collector 202

Solar Ventilation Air Preheat System Schematic 210

Solar Ventilation Air Preheat System Components 210

Design Considerations 214

Recommended Applications 216

Estimating the Cost of a Solar Ventilation Air Preheat System 218

Simple Hand Calculations for Size and Performance of a Solar Ventilation Air Heating System 220

Computer Tools for Analysis of Solar Ventilation Preheat Systems 228

Codes and Standards related to Solar Ventilation Air Preheating 230

Maintenance of Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Systems 230

Case Studies of Solar Ventilation Air Preheating System Installations 231

Example: Procurement Specifications for Solar Ventilation Preheat System 232

CHAPTER 6 Solar Space Heating and Cooling • 237

Site Issues 238

Building Heat Loss 238

Solar Heat Gain through Windows and Opaque Surfaces 239

Materials and Building Components for Passive Solar Space Heating Systems 240

Thermal Storage 244

Heat Distribution Systems 247

Solar Space Heating (Passive or Active) System Schematic Design 248

Estimating the Cost of a Solar Space Heating System 254

Estimating Energy Use and Solar Fraction 255

Calculation of Solar Space Heating System Sizing and Energy Delivery 255

Computer Tools for Analysis of Passive Solar Systems 267

Codes and Standards Related to Passive Solar Heating 272

Operation and Maintenance of Passive Solar Heating Systems 273

Case Studies of Passive Solar Space Heating Systems 273

Example: Procurement Specifications for Passive Solar Thermal Storage Wall 274

CHAPTER 7 Case Studies of Solar Buildings • 277

Case Study: Residence in Golden, Colorado 277

Case Study: Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center, Las Vegas, Nevada 281

Case Study: Research Support Facility (RSF) Office Building, Golden, Colorado 285

Appendix A: Nomenclature • 291

Appendix B: Unit Conversion Factors • 294

Index • 295

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Author Information

ANDY WALKER, PhD, is Principal Engineer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Dr. Walker conducts engineering and economic analysis of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in government facilities, such as national parks and military bases, and corporate facilities, such as Frito-Lay North America and Anheuser-Busch. He has also taught energy-related classes in the mechanical and architectural engineering departments at the University of Colorado Boulder, the Colorado School of Mines, and Metropolitan State University of Denver.

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