Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS: A Workbook Approach to Learning GIS, 3rd EditionISBN: 9781118159804
672 pages
April 2013

Description
An integrated approach that combines essential GIS background with a practical workbook on applying the principles in ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1
Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGISintegrates a broad introduction to GIS with a softwarespecific workbook for Esri's ArcGIS. Where most courses make do using two separate texts, one covering GIS and another the software, this book enables students and instructors to use a single text with an integrated approach covering both in one volume with a common vocabulary and instructional style.
This revised edition focuses on the latest software updates—ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1. In addition to its already successful coverage, the book allows students to experience publishing maps on the Internet through new exercises, and introduces the idea of programming in the language Esri has chosen for applications (i.e., Python). A DVD is packaged with the book, as in prior editions, containing data for working out all of the exercises.
This complete, userfriendly coursebook:
 Is updated for the latest ArcGIS releases—ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1
 Introduces the central concepts of GIS and topics needed to understand spatial information analysis
 Provides a considerable ability to operate important tools in ArcGIS
 Demonstrates new capabilities of ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1
 Provides a basis for the advanced study of GIS and the study of the newly emerging field of GIScience
Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS, Third Edition is the ideal guide for undergraduate students taking courses such as Introduction to GIS, Fundamentals of GIS, and Introduction to ArcGIS Desktop. It is also an important guide for professionals looking to update their skills for ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1.
Table of Contents
Foreword xxvii
Preface to Third Edition xxix
Preface to First Edition xxxv
Introduction xliii
PART I Basic Concepts of GIS 1
CHAPTER 1 Some Concepts That Underpin GIS 3
You Ask: “What Is GIS About?” 3
And So You Ask Again: “What Is GIS About?” 4
EXERCISE 11 (PROJECT)
Finding a Geographic Site by Manual Means 5
More of What GIS Is About 10
Next Steps: Seemingly Independent Things You Need To Know 11
Determining Where Something Is: Coordinate Systems 12
Determining Where Something Is: Latitude and Longitude 14
Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, Geographic Projections, and Scale 15
Projected Coordinate Systems 15
Geographic vs. Projected Coordinates: A Comparison 17
Two Projected Coordinate Systems: UTM and State Plane 17
Physical Dimensionality 20
Global Positioning Systems 22
Remote Sensing 22
Relational Databases 23
Searching (and Indexing) in General 29
Another Definition of GIS 30
Computer Software: In General 32
STEPBYSTEP 35
EXERCISE 12 (PROJECT)
Developing a Fast Facts File for the Information You Learn 35
Understanding the File Structure for the Exercises 36
EXERCISE 13 (MINOR PROJECT)
Getting Set Up with ArcGIS 37
EXERCISE 14 (PROJECT)
Looking at the ArcCatalog Program 38
Anatomy of the ArcCatalog Window 39
Setting Some Options 40
The Catalog Tree 42
Connecting to a Folder 44
The Toolbars and the Status Bar 45
An Optional Step 49
Exploring Basic GIS Data Storage Models 50
EXERCISE 15 (MAJOR PROJECT)
Exploring Data with ArcCatalog—Fire Hydrants in a Village 51
Copying Data over to Your Personal Folder 51
Examining the Table 54
Deriving Information from the Table 55
Sorting the Records 55
Finding Values in a Table 56
Identifying Geographic Features and Coordinates 57
Looking at GeoGraphics 58
A First Look at Metadata 59
Using ArcCatalog to Place Data in ArcMap 61
EXERCISE 16 (PROJECT)
A Look at Some Spatial Data for Finding a Site for the Wildcat Boat Facility 63
Using the Area on the Disk for Your Own Work 64
Copying Data over to Your Personal IGIS Folder 64
Searching for GIS Data 65
Exploring Soils 70
But Something Is Missing 71
Is the Newly Found Data Applicable? 73
Making a Personal Geodatabase Feature Class from a Coverage 74
Looking at the Landcover Personal Geodatabase Feature Class 75
Further Examining the Wildcat Boat Facility Area Data Sets 76
EXERCISE 17 (PROJECT)
Looking at Wildcat Boat Data with ArcMap 79
Seeing the Results of the Join 82
EXERCISE 18 (PROJECT)
Understanding the ArcGIS Help System 82
A Button for Instant Help: What’s This? (for ArcGIS Desktop version 10.0 only) 82
Getting Instant Help for a Tool or Command (for ArcGIS Desktop version 10.1) 83
The Help System and Documentation 83
ArcGIS Help across the Internet 84
EXERCISE 19 (DULL STUFF)
Using ArcCatalog for Mundane Operations 85
EXERCISE 110 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 86
What’s Next? 88
CHAPTER 2 Characteristics and Examples of Spatial Data 89
The Original Form of Spatial Data: Maps 89
Moving Spatial Data from Maps to Computers: Forces for Change 90
Spatial Data 94
Limiting the Scope 95
Spatial Data for Decision Making 95
Sets of Spatial Data: The Database 95
Spatial Databases: Inherent Diffi culties 96
Information Systems 101
Uses for a Geographic Information System 103
STEPBYSTEP 113
EXERCISE 21 (MOSTLY OUTSIDE)
Appreciating Geographic Space and Spatial Data 113
EXERCISE 22 (SETUP)
ArcMap Toolbar Examination and Review 114
EXERCISE 23 (MAJOR PROJECT)
Exploring Different Types of Geographic Data 117
The Basic Difference between ArcCatalog and ArcMap 117
Exploring Data from the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) 117
Preliminaries 118
Seeing the GPS File in ArcMap 118
Looking at the GPS Track in the Context of a Variety of GIS Data 122
A Potpourri of Types of Geographic Data 122
Displaying Layers from VectorBased Datasets 125
Housekeeping: Saving and Restoring a Map 127
Selecting: Both Map Data and Attribute Data 128
Using the Measure Tool and the Identify Tool 131
County Boundaries and Polygons 131
TIGER/Line Files 133
The Table of Contents: Display vs. Source vs. Selection 134
EXERCISE 24 (MAJOR PROJECT)
A Look at Raster Data 136
Digital Raster Graphics and CellBased Files 136
A Look (Optional) at How DRG Color Values Are Put Together 140
Experimenting with Different Ways of Seeing Data 141
Digital Orthophotos 143
More TIGER/Line Files 145
Another Tie between Attributes and Geographics 148
More Housekeeping: Shutting Down and Restarting ArcMap 149
Digital Elevation Model Files 149
Comparing the DEM and the DRG 153
Contour Line Files 153
EXERCISE 25 (PROJECT)
Triangulated Irregular Networks 155
TINs are ThreeDimensional Datasets 158
Elevation Based on Massive Sets of Data: The Esri Terrain 160
EXERCISE 26 (PROJECT)
Geodatasets of Soils, Rocks, and Land Cover 161
The Summarizing Procedure 162
Some Geological Data 164
Rasters of Land Cover Data 165
You Are Not Alone (Assuming you have an Internet connection) 167
Next Steps on Your Own 168
EXERCISE 27 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 168
The Next Chapter 171
CHAPTER 3 Products of a GIS: Maps and Other Information 173
GIS and Cartography—Compatibility? 173
Products of a Geographic Information System 174
Overall Requirements for Utility 174
Classification of GIS Products 175
Documenting Products 177
Thoughts on Different Types of Products 178
Don’t Ignore CharacterBased Information 178
Don’t Hesitate to Sort Information 178
Consider Hard Copy 179
Consider Balance in Product Content 179
Elements of Product Design 179
Units, Projection, and Scale 180
Thoughts on Resolution and Scale 180
Making Sure There Is a Base Map 180
Measure of Quality Assurance 181
The Decision Maker–Product Interface 181
In Summary 182
STEPBYSTEP 183
The Data View and the Layout View 183
EXERCISE 31 (WARMUP)
Templates 184
EXERCISE 32 (PROJECT)
Templates That Contain Data 186
Controlling Your View of the Map: Zooming 188
Understanding the Panning and Other Controls 189
Adding Other Map Elements 190
EXERCISE 33 (MAJOR PROJECT)
Data Frames 192
Adding Data to Data Frames 193
A Summary of the Graphic Indicators 195
Tinkering with the Map—Scale Bars 195
Legends 196
EXERCISE 34 (MINI PROJECT)
Looking at the Plethora of Mapmaking Tools and Options 198
EXERCISE 35 (MAJOR PROJECT)
Making a Map of the Wildcat Boat Datasets 201
EXERCISE 36 (MAJOR PROJECT)
Publishing Maps on the Internet 201
EXERCISE 37 (MAJOR PROJECT)
Enhancing Communication: Styles, Layer Files, Layer Packages, Reports, Charts, and Graphics 206
Layer Files 206
Layer Packages 209
Styles 210
Adding and Using a Style 211
Reports 212
Charts and Graphs 216
Graphics 218
Making Graphics out of Geographic Features 223
EXERCISE 38
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 224
CHAPTER 4 Structures for Storing Geographic Data 227
Why Is Spatial Data Analysis So Hard? 227
How the Computer Aids Analyzing Spatial Data 228
Complexity of Spatial Data 228
Structures for Spatial Data 229
Storage Paradigms for Areal Data 230
Fundamental Bases of Geographic Data Models 230
The Raster Data Model 232
Vector Data Model 234
A Multiplicity of “Storadigms” 235
VectorBased Geographic Datasets—Logical Construction 235
ZeroDimensional Entities in a TwoDimensional Field: Points 236
OneDimensional Entities in a TwoDimensional Field: Lines 237
TwoDimensional Entities in a TwoDimensional Field: Polygons 238
ThreeDimensional Entities in a ThreeDimensional Field: Triangles and Multipatches 239
Specific Esri Spatial Vector Data Storage Mechanisms 240
The Geodatabase Data Structure 240
Geodatabase Software 240
Polygons within Polygons—Perimeter and Area Calculations 241
Geodatabases—Layout in the Computer 243
Geodatabases—Logical Construction 243
Geodatabases—Feature Shape 244
Nested Polygons in Geodatabases 245
Geodatabases and Attributes 245
Objects—First Acquaintance 247
The Shapefile Data Structure 247
Shapefiles—Layout in the Computer 248
Summarizing Vector Dataset Features 249
Summary of Logical Structures of VectorBased GIS Datasets 249
RasterBased Geographic Data Sets—Logical Construction 250
RasterBased Geographic Data Sets—Layout in the Computer 251
TINs 253
TINBased Geographic Data Sets—Layout in the Computer 254
Spatial Reference 255
STEPBYSTEP 257
EXERCISE 41 (WARMUP)
Meet ArcToolbox 257
EXERCISE 42 (WARMUP)
A Look at Some Trivial Personal Geodatabase Feature Classes 259
More Help 260
EXERCISE 43 (MINOR PROJECT)
Adding Tools and Toolboxes to your Toolset 262
EXERCISE 44 (MINOR PROJECT)
Making a Personal Geodatabase Feature Class Named TextToFeature 263
Specifi cation of your Input Text File for the “Create Features from Text File” Tool 263
Labeling Features 266
Making Polygons from Lines 268
Areas and Perimeters Examined 269
Labeling Features with Selected Attributes 269
EXERCISE 45 (QUICK QUIZ)
Areas and Perimeters 270
EXERCISE 46 (PROJECT)
Making a File Geodatabase Feature Class for Foozit_Court 271
EXERCISE 47 (EXPLORATION)
Understanding Some Things That Don’t Look Right 272
Computers and Inexact Computation 274
EXERCISE 48 (PROJECT)
Geodatabase Topology 276
Creating a New Topology 277
Specifying Which Feature Moves When Features Are Adjusted: Rank 277
Topology Rules 278
Validating Topology 279
A Warning: Changes Made through Topology Are Permanent 281
EXERCISE 49 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 281
CHAPTER 5 Geographic and Attribute Data: Selection, Input, and Editing 283
Concerns about Finding and Collecting Data 283
Looking for Data on the Internet 284
Steps in Developing the Database 284
GPS and GIS 289
Anatomy of the Acronym: GPS 291
What Time Is It? 294
STEPBYSTEP 295
EXERCISE 51 (WARMUP)
Looking at Areal Representations of the Real World 295
Looking at Reference Systems 296
Looking at Coordinate Systems 298
Using the Reference System to Discover the Boundary Coordinates of a State Plane Zone 299
Primary Lesson 301
EXERCISE 52 (PROJECT)
Look at Geographic Data on the web 301
EXERCISE 53 (PROJECT)
Digitizing and Transforming 302
A Plan for Digitizing and Transforming 302
Getting Started 303
Loading an Image File as a Layer in ArcMap 303
Loading the New, Blank Shapefi le into ArcMap 305
Adding Line Features to a Shapefi le by Using the Editing Facility in ArcMap 305
Converting a Shapefi le to a Geodatabse Feature Class and Giving It RealWorld Coordinates 309
Converting the Shapefi le to a Geodatabase Feature Class 310
Moving the Foozit Court Feature Class into the Real World 310
EXERCISE 54 (PROJECT)
Digitizing Directly into a RealWorld Coordinate System in a Geodatabase 314
Preliminaries 314
Making the Feature Class That Will Be the Object of the Digitization 315
Georeferencing 315
Moving the Sketch to UTM Zone 2 317
Digitizing the Line Boundaries of the Islands 318
Making Polygons of the Digitized Lines 318
Making Multipart Polygons 319
Five islands divided by county and agency 319
Merging Multipart Polygons 320
EXERCISE 55 (WARMUP)
Digitizing Geodatabase Polygons and Exploring Topology 321
Making Copies of the Feature Class 322
Using “Clip” to Remove Overlaps from the Feature Class 323
Using Topology to Remove Overlaps from the Feature Class 324
EXERCISE 56 (PROJECT)
Learning Some Editor Fundamentals 326
The Concept of the Edit Sketch 326
Making Sketches with Snapping 326
Experimenting with Editing Polygons 329
Experimenting with Editor’s Union 329
Experimenting with the Editor’s Intersect 330
Experimenting with the Editor’s Buffer Capabilities 330
Using Undo, Redo, Copy, and Cut 330
Working with Line Editing Again 331
EXERCISE 57 (FOLLOWON)
Adding the Sixth Island 331
Creating a 3D Feature 333
EXERCISE 58 (PROJECT)
Obtaining Field Data and Joining Tables 335
Organization 336
Environment and Measurement (Spatial Data) 336
Measurements (Nonspatial Data) 337
Recording Data 337
Team Assignments 337
Undertaking the Data Entry Process 338
Making a Table That Contains the Coordinate Data 338
Making a Table That Contains the Student Data 339
Populating the Student_Info Table with Data 340
Joining the Two Tables to Make a Single Table 340
Seeing the Results of the Join 340
EXERCISE 59 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 342
PART II Spatial Analysis and Synthesis with GIS 345
CHAPTER 6 Analysis of GIS Data by Simple Examination 347
Information 347
Computer Hardware—What a Computer Does 349
Continuous and Discrete Phenomena 352
Some Implications of Discrete Representation for GIS 355
Scientific Notation, Numerical Significance, Accuracy, and Precision 356
Precision vs. Accuracy 356
Basic Statistics 359
Putting Values into Classes 361
Measurement Scales 361
STEPBYSTEP 363
EXERCISE 61 (PROJECT)
Reviewing and Learning More of ArcMap 363
Examining the Toolbars 364
Pointing at Records 365
Two Windows Are Available for Selecting 365
Selecting Records (and, Thereby, Features) 366
Looking at the Other Capabilities of the Options Menu 368
Selecting Features (and, Thereby, Records) 368
Quick Selection of Features 368
Selecting by Location 369
Reviewing and Understanding Actions on the Table of Contents 370
Layers and the Data Frames 370
Changing Layer Properties 371
EXERCISE 62 (PROJECT)
Categorization and Symbolization 375
Thinking about Maps Again 375
Classification (or Categorization) and Symbolization 375
User Selection of Classes 377
A More Careful Look at Equal Intervals 379
Defined Interval 379
Quantiles 379
Standard Deviation 379
Natural Breaks 380
Normalization 381
Using Charts and Graphs 381
Making a Layout 382
EXERCISE 63 (SHORT PROJECT)
Comparing Data Sets: Medically Underserved Areas (MUAs) and Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) 382
EXERCISE 64 (MAJOR PROJECT)
Combining Demographic and Geographic Data 386
Obtaining Data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census 387
Converting the Census Data Spreadsheet to dBASEIV Format 388
Using TIGERBased Street and Block
Shapefiles from Esri 390
Assessing What We Have and What We Need to Solve the Problem 394
Converting the Relevant Files to Cartesian Coordinates 395
Finally 395
EXERCISE 65
Determining Proximity of Points to Lines and Other Points 397
EXERCISE 66 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 399
CHAPTER 7 Creating Spatial Feature Classes Based on Proximity, Overlay, and Attributes 403
Generating Features Based on Proximity: Buffering 403
Generating Features by Overlaying 405
Overlaying with Line and Point Feature Classes 407
Spatial Joins in General 409
Deriving Feature Classes by Selecting Attributes: Extraction 410
STEPBYSTEP 413
EXERCISE 71 (WARMUP)
Making Trivial Buffers around a Trivial Feature Class 413
EXERCISE 72 (PROJECT)
Exploring FEATURE CLASS Buffers with the Wildcat Boat Data 415
Using ArcToolbox to Make Buffer Zones around the Roads 416
VariableWidth Buffers 417
EXERCISE 73 (PROJECT)
Manipulate Polygon Feature Classes with Union and Extract 419
Make a New Feature Class from a Subset of Polygons: Extract 423
More Complex Queries—And’s and Or’s 425
Other Polygon Spatial Joins: Intersect and Identity 425
EXERCISE 74 (PROJECT)
Use Overlay and Extract with Trivial Point and Line Feature Classes 426
EXERCISE 75 (PROJECT) 429
Using Buffer and Overlay Together with Geodatabases 429
The Getrich Saga 429
Deriving Information by Combining Tables 431
Overlaying the Feature Classes 433
EXERCISE 76 (PROJECT)
Building a Model of the Getrich Project Solution 435
Create a Python Script from the Gold Model 439
Modify the Python Script from the Gold Model 440
Execute the Python Script 440
EXERCISE 77 (MINOR PROJECT)
Making Buffers for Solving the Wildcat Boat Problem 441
EXERCISE 78 (PROJECT)
Finding a Site for the Wildcat Boat Facility 442
EXERCISE 79 (PROJECT, OPTIONAL)
Solving a Revised Wildcat Boat Problem 446
Understanding Dissolve 446
Making New Sites that Including the COST_HA Field 447
Considering the Site Eccentricity Criterion 448
Making a Model of the Wildcat Boat Solution 450
EXERCISE 711 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 452
CHAPTER 8 Spatial Analysis Based on Raster Data Processing 453
A Really Different Processing Paradigm 453
Facts about Rasters 454
Coordinate Space 455
Rasters with Integer Cell Values 456
Rasters with FloatingPoint Values 459
What Is Raster Storage and Processing Good For? 459
Rasters and Features 461
Rasters: Input, Computation, and Output 461
Where Raster Processing Shines: Cost Incurred Traveling over a Distance 462
Proximity Calculation with Rasters 462
Human Activity, Cost, and Distance 463
Euclidean Distances on the Raster 463
Euclidean Distance and the Spatial Analyst 465
Proving Pythagoras Right 465
Finding the Closest of Multiple Source Cells 466
Excluding Distances beyond a Certain Threshold 467
Other Factors That Infl uence Cost 467
The Cost Distance Mechanism 468
The Cost Distance Calculation 468
Path Calculation in Euclidean Distance and Cost Distance 469
Understanding How Total Costs Are Calculated 470
Getting More Information: Paths and Allocations 471
Direction and Allocation Rasters for Euclidean Distance 471
Direction and Allocation Rasters for Cost Distance 471
A Major Application of Raster Processing: Hydrology 471
Basic Surface Hydrology 473
Basic Surface Hydrology Concepts 474
Calculating Flow Direction 474
The Ultimate Destination of Water Is Off the Raster Area 475
Flow Accumulation: Drainage Delineation and Rainfall Volume 476
Nonuniform Rainfall 477
Calculating the Length of a Potential Linear Water Body 478
Assigning Identities to Streams 479
Vector vs. Raster Representation 480
Assigning Orders to Stream Links 480
Watersheds and Pour Points 481
STEPBYSTEP 483
EXERCISE 81 (PROJECT)
Basic Raster Principles and Operations 483
The Raster Calculator—Integer Rasters 486
Arithmetic Calculation 487
Boolean Operations 488
FloatingPoint Rasters 489
EXERCISE 82 (PROJECT)
Solving the Original Wildcat Boat Problem with Rasters 491
Setting the General and Raster Environment 491
Converting Features to Rasters 492
Creating Rasters with Linear Features 496
Buffering with Spatial Analyst (Maybe) 497
Buffering—Plan B 498
Reclassifying the Data 498
Adding the Rasters with the Raster Calculator 501
Converting Zones to Regions to Find Individual Sites 502
EXERCISE 83 (PROJECT)
Solving a Wildcat Boat Problem with Different Requirements 503
EXERCISE 84 (DEMONSTRATION)
Making Surfaces with IDW, Spline, Trend, Nearest Neighbor, and Kriging 506
Points and Density 509
Thiessen, Dirichlet, Voronoi (and, of course, Decartes) 509
EXERCISE 85 (PROJECT)
Rasters: Distance and Proximity 511
Making a Raster Showing StraightLine Distances to a Single Place 511
Examining Many Source Cells and the Capping Distance 514
Developing a Raster with Cost Distance 516
Creating Direction and Allocation Rasters 518
Using Cost Distance to Make Direction and Allocation Rasters 519
Calculating a LeastCost Path from “A” to “B” 522
EXERCISE 86 (PROJECT)
Putting the Tools Together: Find a Site for a Regional Park 523
Setting Things Up 524
Preparing to Create a Cost Surface 526
Building a Cost Surface 527
Improving the Understandability of the Map 529
EXERCISE 87 (PROJECT)
Watershed Analysis 529
Examining the Surface with Various Spatial Analyst and 3D Tools 530
Determining the Stream Channels 533
Calculating Stream Order 533
Numbering Each Stream Individually 534
Identifying Basins 534
Finding Pollution Culprits 534
EXERCISE 88 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 535
CHAPTER 9 Other Dimensions, Other Tools, Other Solutions 537
Two Different Third Dimensions: The Temporal and the Vertical Spatial 537
THE THIRD SPATIAL DIMENSION: OVERVIEW 539
3D: 2D (Spatial) Plus 1D (Spatial) 539
ArcScene 539
ArcGlobe 540
THE THIRD SPATIAL DIMENSION: STEPBYSTEP 541
An (Almost) New Software Package: ArcScene 541
EXERCISE 91 (PROJECT)
Experimenting with 3D 542
ArcScene 542
What’s 3D and What’s Not 543
Viewing 3D Data with Animation 546
Making a TIN and Other 3D Representations of Elevation 549
Creating DEM fi les with Kriging 551
Creating a Map of Contour Lines 553
TwoandaHalf Dimensions (2.5D): Calculating Volumes 553
Calculating a Volume with ArcGIS 554
Other Neat Stuff You Can Do with 3D Analyst: Viewshed and Hillshade 556
A Closer Look at ArcGlobe and Adding Data to It 558
Making a Terrain 560
THE TIME DIMENSION: OVERVIEW 567
3D: 2D (Spatial) Plus 1D (Temporal) 567
THE TIME DIMENSION: STEPBYSTEP 569
EXERCISE 92 (PROJECT)
Looking at Infrastructure Changes Occurring over Time 569
Sliding through Time—Seeing Changes in Features at Intervals 573
ADDRESS GEOCODING: OVERVIEW 575
A Second Fundamental Way of Defining Location 575
TIGER/Line Files 576
Precision of the Geographic Coordinates in TIGER Files 578
Address Locators 579
ADDRESS GEOCODING: STEPBYSTEP 581
EXERCISE 93 (PROJECT)
Experimenting with Addresses and Coordinates 581
Finding the Geographic Position of an Address “Manually” 582
Making an Address Locator 584
Finding the Geographic Position of an Address “Automatically” 584
TIGER Files and ZIP Codes 585
More to Know—More Information Available 586
ANALYSIS OF NETWORKS: OVERVIEW 587
ANALYSIS OF NETWORKS: STEPBYSTEP 589
EXERCISE 94 (PROJECT)
Experimenting with Routes and Allocations 589
Finding the Shortest Route to a Facility 593
Allocating Territories to Facilities 595
LINEAR REFERENCING: OVERVIEW 597
LINEAR REFERENCING: STEPBYSTEP 599
EXERCISE 95 (PROJECT)
Experimenting within Linear Features 599
Intersecting Route Events 603
What’s Not Covered Here 605
EXERCISE 96 (REVIEW)
Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 607
Afterword: From Systems to Science by Michael Goodchild 609
Index 611
Author Information
MICHAEL KENNEDY, AICP, is an Associate Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Kentucky. He is the author of The Global Positioning System and ArcGIS, Third Edition, as well as books on Fortran, Pascal, and PL/One. He has presented papers on GIS analysis quality control at Esri User Conferences and is a member of the American Institute of Certified Planners, the Association of American Geographers, and the American Planning Association.