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Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Power as an Energy Source

ISBN: 978-1-118-16006-0
488 pages
October 2013
Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Power as an Energy Source (1118160061) cover image

This technical book explores current and future applications of solar power as an unlimited source of energy that earth receives every day.  Photosynthetic organisms have learned to utilize this abundant source of energy by converting it into high-energy biochemical compounds.  Inspired by the efficient conversion of solar energy into an electron flow, attempts have been made to construct artificial photosynthetic systems capable of establishing a charge separation state for generating electricity or driving chemical reactions.  Another important aspect of photosynthesis is the CO2 fixation and the production of high energy compounds.  Photosynthesis can produce biomass using solar energy while reducing the CO2 level in air.  Biomass can be converted into biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Under certain conditions, photosynthetic organisms can also produce hydrogen gas which is one of the cleanest sources of energy.

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Preface xv

Contributors xix

Acronyms xxiii

1 Physics Overview of Solar Energy 1
Diego Castano

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Sun 2

1.3 Light 3

1.4 Thermodynamics 6

1.5 Photovoltaics 9

1.6 Photosynthesis 11

References 12

2 Oxygenic Photosynthesis 13
Dmitriy Shevela, Lars Olof Bj¨orn, and Govindjee

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Path of Energy: From Photons to Charge Separation 16

2.3 Electron Transfer Pathways 22

2.4 Photophosphorylation 30

2.5 Carbon Dioxide to Organic Compounds 33

2.6 Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis 37

2.7 Some Interesting Questions about Whole Plants 42

2.8 Perspectives for the Future 48

2.9 Summary 48

Acknowledgments 49

References 49

3 Apparatus and Mechanism of Photosynthetic Water Splitting as
Nature’s Blueprint for Efficient Solar Energy Exploitation 65
Gernot Renger

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Overall Reaction Pattern of Photosynthesis and Respiration 67

3.3 Bioenergetic Limit of Solar Energy Exploitation: Water Splitting 68

3.4 Humankind’s Dream of Using Water and Solar Radiation as
“Clean Fuel” 69

3.5 Nature’s Blueprint of Light-Induced Water Splitting 71

3.6 Types of Approaches in Performing Light-Driven H2 and O2
Formation from Water 71

3.7 Light-Induced “Stable” Charge Separation 78

3.8 Energetics of Light-Induced Charge Separation 80

3.9 Oxidative Water Splitting: The Kok Cycle 82

3.10 YZ Oxidation by P680+• 83

3.11 Structure and Function of the WOC 86

3.12 Concluding Remarks 102

Acknowledgments 102

References 103

4 Artificial Photosynthesis 121
Reza Razeghifard

4.1 Introduction 121

4.2 Organic Pigment Assemblies on Electrodes 122

4.3 Photosystem Assemblies on Electrodes 124

4.4 Hydrogen Production by Photosystem I Hybrid Systems 127

4.5 Mimicking Water Oxidation with Manganese Complexes 128

4.6 Protein Design for Introducing Manganese Chemistry in Proteins 130

4.7 Protein Design and Photoactive Proteins with Chl Derivatives 131

4.8 Conclusion 133

Acknowledgment 133

References 134

5 Artificial Photosynthesis: Ruthenium Complexes 143
Dimitrios G. Giarikos

5.1 Ruthenium(II) 143

5.2 Ligand Influence on the Photochemistry of Ru(II) 145

5.3 Importance of Polypyridyl Ligands and Metal Ion for Tuning of
MLCT Transitions 149

5.4 Electron Transfer of Ru(II) Complexes 150

5.5 Light-Harvesting Complexes Using Ru(II) Complexes 151

5.6 Ru(II) Artificial Photosystem Models for Photosystem II 157

5.7 Ru (II) Artificial Photosystem Models for Hydrogenase 161

5.8 Conclusion 166

References 166

6 CO2 Sequestration and Hydrogen Production Using Cyanobacteria and Green Algae 173
Kanhaiya Kumar and Debabrata Das

6.1 Introduction 173

6.2 Microbiology 174

6.3 Biochemistry of CO2 Fixation 176

6.4 Parameters Affecting the CO2 Sequestration Process 180

6.5 Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria 183

6.6 Mechanisms of H2 Production in Green Algae 194

6.7 Photobioreactors 202

6.8 Conclusion 206

Acknowledgments 206

References 206

7 Cyanobacterial Biofuel and Chemical Production for CO2 Sequestration 217
John W. K. Oliver and Shota Atsumi

7.1 Carbon Sequestration by Biomass 217

7.2 Introduction to Cyanobacteria 219

7.3 CO2 Uptake Efficiency of Cyanobacteria 219

7.4 Mitigation of Costs Through Captured-Carbon Products 221

7.5 Captured-Carbon Products from Engineered Cyanobacteria 222

7.6 Conclusion 227

References 227

8 Hydrogen Production by Microalgae 231
Helena M. Amaro, M. Gl´oria Esqu´ývel, Teresa S. Pinto, and F. Xavier Malcata

8.1 Introduction 231

8.2 Hydrogenase Engineering 233

8.3 Metabolic Reprograming 233

8.4 Light Capture Improvement 236

Acknowledgments 238

References 238

9 Algal Biofuels 243
Archana Tiwari and Anjana Pandey

9.1 Introduction 243

9.2 Advantages of Algae 243

9.3 Algal Strains and Biofuel Production 246

9.4 Algal Biofuels 247

9.5 Algal Cultivation for Biofuel Production 252

9.6 Photobioreactors Employed for Algal Biofuels 254

9.7 Recent Achievements in Algal Biofuels 255

9.8 Strategies for Enhancement of Algal Biofuel Production 258

9.9 Conclusion 261

References 261

10 Green Hydrogen: Algal Biohydrogen Production 267
Ela Eroglu, Matthew Timmins, and Steven M. Smith

10.1 Introduction 267

10.2 Hydrogen Production by Algae 267

10.3 Hydrogenase Enzyme 269

10.4 Diversity of Hydrogen-Producing Algae 270

10.5 Model Microalgae for H2 Production Studies: Chlamydomonas
Reinhardtii 272

10.6 Approaches for Enhancing Hydrogen Production 273

10.7 Conclusion 279

References 279

11 Growth in Photobioreactors 285
Niels Thomas Eriksen

11.1 Introduction 285

11.2 Design of Photobioreactors 286

11.3 Limitations to Productivity of Microalgal Cultures 287

11.4 Actual Productivities of Microalgal Cultures 290

11.5 Distribution of Light in Photobioreactors 292

11.6 Gas Exchange in Photobioreactors 294

11.7 Shear Stress in Photobioreactors 297

11.8 Current Trends in Photobioreactor Development 298

Acknowledgment 299

References 299

12 Industrial Cultivation Systems for Intensive Production of Microalgae 307
Giuseppe Olivieri, Piero Salatino, and Antonio Marzocchella

12.1 Introduction 307

12.2 Relevant Issues for Design and Operation of Systems for
Microalgal Cultures 308

12.3 Open Systems 318

12.4 Closed Systems: Photobioreactors 321

12.5 Novel Photobioreactor Configurations 326

12.6 Case Study: Intensive Production of Bio-Oil 333

Acknowledgments 337

References 337

13 Microalgae Biodiesel and Macroalgae Bioethanol: The Solar
Conversion Challenge for Industrial Renewable Fuels 345
Navid R. Moheimani, Mark P. McHenry, and Pouria Mehrani

13.1 Introduction 345

13.2 Biofuel Supply, Demand, Production, and New Feedstocks 346

13.3 Feasibility of Photosynthetic Fuel Production 348

13.4 Biodiesel Production and Feedstocks 349

13.5 Macroalgae Biofuel Feedstocks and Production 352

13.6 Conclusion 354

References 355

14 Technoeconomic Assessment of Large-Scale Production of
Bioethanol from Microalgal Biomass 361
Razif Harun, Hassan J, Li J. S. Shu, Lucy A. Arthur, and Michael K. Danquah

14.1 Introduction 361

14.2 Technology Selection and Process Design 362

14.3 Economic Analysis 375

14.4 Reduction of Overall Production Cost 383

14.5 Conclusion 384

References 385

15 Microalgae-Derived Chemicals: Opportunity for an Integrated
Chemical Plant 387
Azadeh Kermanshahi-pour, Julie B. Zimmerman, and Paul T. Anastas

15.1 Introduction 387

15.2 Microalgae Cultivation Systems 388

15.3 Lipids 392

15.4 Carbohydrates 408

15.5 Protein 410

15.6 Process Integration 413

15.7 Conclusion 420

References 422

16 Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass 435
Ian M. O’Hara, Zhanying Zhang, Philip A. Hobson, Mark D. Harrison,
Sagadevan G. Mundree, and William O. S. Doherty

16.1 Introduction 435

16.2 The Nature of Lignocellulosic Biomass 436

16.3 Feedstocks for Biomass Processing 439

16.4 Production of Fermentable Sugars from Biomass 441

16.5 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals 445

16.6 Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass 449

16.7 Conclusion 449

References 450

Index 457

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REZA RAZEGHIFARD is an associate professor of biochemistry at Nova Southeastern University.

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