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Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Related Technologies

Ying Wu (Editor), John J. Carroll (Editor), Zhimin Du (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-17553-8
September 2011
Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Related Technologies (1118175530) cover image
Carbon dioxide sequestration is a technology that is being explored to curb the anthropogenic emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has been implicated in the global climate change and reducing them is a potential solution.

The injection of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has the duel benefit of sequestering the CO2 and extending the life of some older fields. Sequestering CO2 and EOR have many shared elements that make them comparable.

This volume presents some of the latest information on these processes covering physical properties, operations, design, reservoir engineering, and geochemistry for AGI and the related technologies.

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Introduction

The Three Sisters - CCS, AGI, and EOR xix
Ying Wu, John J. Carroll and Zhimin Du

Section 1: Data and Correlation

1. Prediction of Acid Gas Dew Points in the Presence of Water and Volatile Organic Compounds 3
Ray. A. Tomcej

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Previous Studies 4

1.3 Thermodynamic Model 5

1.4 Calculation Results 6

1.5 Discussion 10

2. Phase Behavior of China Reservoir Oil at Different C02 Injected Concentrations 13
Fengguang Li, Xin Yang, Changyu Sun, and Guangjin Chen

2.1 Introduction 14

2.2 Preparation of Reservoir Fluid 14

2.3 PVT Phase Behavior for the C02 Injected Crude Oil 15

2.4 Viscosity of the C02 Injected Crude Oil 17

2.5 Interfacial Tension for C02 Injected Crude Oil/Strata Water 19

2.6 Conclusions 20

3. Viscosity and Density Measurements for Sour Gas Fluids at High Temperatures and Pressures 23
B.R. Giri, P. Biais and R.A. Marriott

3.1 Introduction 24

3.2 Experimental 25

3.3 Results 31

3.4 Conclusions 37

4. Acid Gas Viscosity Modeling with the Expanded Fluid Viscosity Correlation 41
H. Motahhari, M.A. Satyro, H.W. Yarranton

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Expanded Fluid Viscosity Correlation 42

4.3 Results and Discussion 47

4.4 Conclusions 52

4.5 Acknowledgements 52

5. Evaluation and Improvement of Sour Property Packages in Unisim Design 55
Jianyong Yang, Ensheng Zhao, Laurie Wang, and Sanjoy Saha

5.1 Introduction 55

5.2 Model Description 56

5.3 Phase Equilibrium Calculation 58

5.4 Conclusions 62

5.5 Future Work 62

6. Compressibility Factor of High C02-Content Natural Gases: Measurement and Correlation 65
Xiaoqiang Bian, Zhimin Du, Yong Tang, and Jianfen Du

6.1 Introduction 65

6.2 Experiment 67

6.3 Methods 68

6.5 Comparison of the Proposed Method and Other Methods 78

6.6 Conclusions 83

6.7 Acknowledgements 84

6.8 Nomenclature 84

Section 2: Process Engineering

7. Analysis of Acid Gas Injection Variables 89
Edward Wiehert and James van der Lee

7.1 Introduction 89

7.2 Discussion 90

7.3 Program Design 93

7.4 Results 94

7.5 Discussion of Results 96

7.6 Conclusion 105

8. Glycol Dehydration as a Mass Transfer Rate Process 107
Nathan A. Hatcher, Jaime L. Nava and Ralph H. Weiland

8.1 Phase Equilibrium 108

8.2 Process Simulation 110

8.3 Dehydration Column Performance 111

8.4 Stahl Columns and Stripping Gas 114

8.5 Interesting Observations from a Mass Transfer Rate Model 115

8.6 Factors That Affect Dehydration of Sweet Gases 118

8.7 Dehydration of Acid Gases 119

8.8 Conclusions 119

9. Carbon Capture Using Amine-Based Technology 121
Ben Spooner and David Engel

9.1 Amine Applications 121

9.2 Amine Technology 122

9.3 Reaction Chemistry 124

9.4 Types of Amine 126

9.5 Challenges of Carbon Capture 128

9.6 Conclusion 131

10. Dehydration-through-Compression (DTC): Is It Adequate? A Tale of Three Gases 133
Wes H. Wright

10.1 Background 133

10.2 Water Saturation 138

10.3 Is It Adequate? 138

10.4 The Gases 141

10.5 Results 147

10.6 Discussion 151

11. Diaphragm Pumps Improve Efficiency of Compressing Acid Gas and C02 155
Josef Jarosch, Anke-Dorothee Braun

11.1 Diaphragm Pumps 162

11.2 Acid Gas Compression 164

11.3 C02 Compression for Sequestration 167

11.4 Conclusion 171

Section 3: Reservoir Engineering

12. Acid Gas Injection in the Permian and San Juan Basins: Recent Case Studies from New Mexico 175
David T. Lescinsky; Alberto A. Gutierrez, RG; James C. Hunter, RG; Julie W. Gutierrez; and Russell E. Bentley

12.1 Background 175

12.2 AGI Project Planning and Implementation 178

12.3 AGI Projects in New Mexico 190

12.4 AGI and the Potential for Carbon Credits 204

12.5 Conclusions 207

13. C02 and Acid Gas Storage in Geological Formations as Gas Hydrate 209
Farhad Qanbari, Olga Ye Zatsepina, S. Hamed Tabatabaie, Mehran Pooladi-Darvish

13.1 Introduction 210

13.2 Geological Settings 211

13.3 Model Parameters 216

13.4 Results 218

13.5 Discussion 221

13.6 Conclusions 223

13.7 Acknowledgment 224

14. Complex Flow Mathematical Model of Gas Pool with Sulfur Deposition 227
W. Zhu, Y. Long, Q. Liu, Y. Ju, and X. Huang

14.1 Introduction 227

14.2 The Mathematical Model of Multiphase Complex Flow 228

14.3 Mathematical Models of Flow Mechanisms 232

14.4 Solution of the Mathematical Model Equations 238

14.5 Example 240

14.6 Conclusions 242

14.7 Acknowledgement 242

Section 4: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

15. Enhanced Oil Recovery Project: Dunvegan C Pool 247
Darryl Burns

15.1 Introduction 248

15.2 Pool Data Collection 249

15.3 Pool Event Log 252

15.4 Reservoir Fluid Characterization 255

15.5 Material Balance 263

15.6 Geological Model 264

15.7 Geological Uncertainty 269

15.8 History Match 272

15.9 Black Oil to Compositional Model Conversion 282

15.10 Recovery Alternatives 290

15.11 Economics 307

15.12 Economic Uncertainty 312

15.13 Discussion and Learning 312

15.14 End Note 317

16. C02 Flooding as an EOR Method for Low Permeability Reservoirs 319
Yongle Hu, Yunpeng Hu, Qin Li, Lei Huang, Mingqiang Hao, and Siyu Yang

16.1 Introduction 319

16.2 Field Experiment of C02 Flooding in China 320

16.3 Mechanism of C02 Flooding Displacement 321

16.4 Perspective 324

16.5 Conclusion 326

17. Pilot Test Research on C02 Drive in Very Low Permeability Oil Field of in Daqing Changyuan 329
Weiyao Zhu, Jiecheng Cheng, Xiaohe Huang, Yunqian Long, and Y. Lou

17.1 Introduction 329

17.2 Laboratory Test Study on C02 Flooding in Oil Reservoirs with Very Low Permeability 330

17.3 Field Testing Research 333

17.4 Conclusion 346

17.5 Acknowledgement 349

18. Operation Control of C02-Driving in Field Site. Site Test in Wellblock Shu 101, Yushulin Oil Field, Daqing 351
Xinde Wan, Tao Sun, Yingzhi Zhang, Tiejun Yang, and Changhe Mu

18.1 Test Area Description 352

18.2 Test Effect and Cognition 353

18.3 Conclusions 359

19. Application of Heteropolysaccharide in Acid Gas Injection 361
Jie Zhang, Gang Guo and Shugang Li

19.1 Introduction 361

19.2 Application of Heteropolysaccharide in C02 Reinjection Miscible Phase Recovery 363

19.3 Application of Heteropolysaccharide in H2S Reinjection formation 370

19.4 Conclusions 373

Section 5: Geology and Geochemistry

20. Impact of S02 and NO on Carbonated Rocks Submitted to a Geological Storage of C02: An Experimental Study 377
Stéphane Renard, Jérôme Sterpenich, Jacques Pironon, Aurélien Randi, Pierre Chiquet and Marc Lescanne

20.1 Introduction 377

20.2 Apparatus and Methods 378

20.3 Results and Discussion 381

20.4 Conclusion 391

21. Geochemical Modeling of Huff 'N' Puff Oil Recovery With C02 at the Northwest Mcgregor Oil Field 393
Yevhen I. Holubnyak, Blaise A.F. Mibeck, Jordan M. Bremer, Steven A. Smith, James A. Sorensen, Charles D. Gorecki, Edward N. Steadman, and John A. Harju

21.1 Introduction 393

21.2 Northwest McGregor Location and Geological Setting 395

21.3 The Northwest McGregor Field, E. Goetz #1 Well Operational History 395

21.4 Reservoir Mineralogy 397

21.5 Preinjection and Postinjection Reservoir Fluid Analysis 398

21.6 Major Observations and the Analysis of the Reservoir Fluid Sampling 400

21.7 Laboratory Experimentations 401

21.8 2-D Reservoir Geochemical Modeling with GEM 402

21.9 Summary and Conclusions 403

21.10 Acknowledgments 404

21.11 Disclaimer 404

22. Comparison of C02 and Acid Gas Interactions with reservoir fluid and Rocks at Williston Basin Conditions 407
Yevhen I. Holubnyak, Steven B. Hawthorne, Blaise A. Mibeck, David J. Miller, Jordan M. Bremer, Steven A. Smith, James A. Sorensen, Edward N. Steadman, and John A. Harju

22.1 Introduction 407

22.2 Rock Unit Selection 409

22.3 C02 Chamber Experiments 411

22.4 Mineralogical Analysis 412

22.5 Numerical Modeling 413

22.6 Results 413

22.7 Carbonate Minerals Dissolution 414

22.8 Mobilization of Fe 416

22.9 Summary and Suggestions for Future Developments 418

22.10 Acknowledgments 418

22.11 Disclaimer 418

Section 6: Well Technology

23 Well Cement Aging in Various H2S-C02 Flui( is at High Pressure and High Temperature: Experiments and Modelling 423
Nicolas Jacquemet, Jacques Pironon, Vincent Lagneau, Jérémie Saint-Marc

23.1 Introduction 424

23.2 Experimental equipment 425

23.3 Materials, Experimental Conditions and Analysis 426

23.4 Results and Discussion 428

23.5 Reactive Transport Modelling 430

23.6 Conclusion 432

24. Casing Selection and Correlation Technology for Ultra-Deep, Ultra- High Pressure, High H2S Gas Wells 437
Yongxing Sun, Yuanhua Lin, Taihe Shi, Zhongsheng Wang, Dajiang Zhu, Liping Chen, Sujun Liu, and Dezhi Zeng

24.1 Introduction 438

24.2 Material Selection Recommended Practice 438

24.3 Casing Selection and Correlation Technology 441

24.4 Field Applications 443

24.4 Conclusions 445

24.5 Acknowledgments 447

25. Coupled Mathematical Model of Gas Migration in Cemented Annulus with Mud Column in Acid Gas Well 449
Hongjun Zhu, Yuanhua Lin, Yongxing Sun, Dezhi Zeng, Zhi Zhang, and Taihe Shi

25.1 Introduction 449

25.2 Coupled Mathematical Model 450

25.3 Illustration 458

25.4 Conclusions 459

25.5 Nomenclature 460

25.6 Acknowledgment 461

Section 7: Corrosion

26. Study on Corrosion Resistance of L245/825 Lined Steel Pipe Welding Gap in H2S+C02 Environment 465
Dezhi Zeng, Yuanhua Lin, Liming Huang, Daijiang Zhu, Tan Gu, Taihe Shi, and Yongxing Sun

26.1 Introduction 466

26.2 Welding Process of Lined Steel Pipe 466

26.3 Corrosion Test Method of Straight and Ring Welding Gaps of L245/825 Lined Steel Pipe 467

26.4 Corrosion Test Results of Straight and Ring Welding Gaps of 1245/825 Lined Steel Pipe 472

26.5 Conclusions 477

26.6 Acknowledgments 477

References 477

Index 479

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"Each separately readable chapter is structured in introduction, experimentals, results and discussion. This allows a structured understanding.  Although this book does not solve all the questions raised when talking about safety and reliability of CCS-technology, it provides a base of knowledge. Increased research on this questions contributes to a tremendous extension of current knowledge, basing on this publication."  (Materials & Corrosion, 1 November 2012)

 

 

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