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E-book

Performance-Based Certification: How to Design a Valid, Defensible, Cost-Effective Program

ISBN: 978-1-118-17626-9
360 pages
November 2011, Pfeiffer
Performance-Based Certification: How to Design a Valid, Defensible, Cost-Effective Program (111817626X) cover image
Are your employees qualified?

Looking for qualified people to do competent work? How do you ensure that the people you hire can do the job right? An ever-increasing number of organizations are asking the same questions.

Certification planning is the answer and Performance-Based Certification is the key. This is the only book on the market that addresses the growing need to monitor the qualifications of employees. You'll be able to quickly customize the certification tests and other job aids provided on the accompanying disk.

Create a certification program within your organization to:
  • Instill confidence that employees, members, or suppliers are qualified to meet the needs of your customers
  • Ensure that your workforce is trained and competent to their job
  • Make your hiring process more cost effective and legally defendable
  • Recognize competence and consistency of your employees

Once you've identified the need for a certification program, what's the next step? All of the answers are here!

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List of Tables, Figures, and Exhibits / xi

Contents of the Website / xiii

Introduction / 1

Chapter 1 The Driver / 11

Why Organizations Certify / 11

Protecting the Public / 12

Reinforcing Professional Stature and Promoting Universal Standards / 13

Preparing People for Jobs Requiring Competence in Multiple Disciplines / 14

Protecting Jobs and Enhancing Professional Stature / 15

Improving Business Processes / 16

Establishing Professional Credibility and Influencing Academic Curricula / 18

Establishing Uniform Performance Standards / 18

Protecting the Brand Name / 19

Raising the Level of Core Competencies / 20

Success Measures / 21

Who to Involve / 21

The Players / 21

Target Audience / 22

Stakeholders / 22

Benefits of Certification / 25

Missteps and Oversights / 26

Tips / 27

Summary / 30

Where to Learn More / 31

Notes / 32

Chapter 2 The Business Case / 33

What Goes into a Business Case / 34

Hypotheses, Premises, and Best Guesses / 36

Metrics or Key Success Indicators / 37

Economic Metrics / 39

Noneconomic Metrics / 42

The Requirements / 43

Missteps and Oversights / 43

Tips / 44

Summary / 48

Where to Learn More / 50

Note / 51

Chapter 3 The Requirements / 53

Distinctions Among Eligibility, Qualification, and Certification / 53

Roles Certification Plays / 54

Gatekeeping or Screening / 54

Recognizing Demonstrated Performance / 57

Recognizing Different Levels of Accomplishment or Different Capabilities / 57

Typical Requirements for Certification / 58

Acceptance of a Code of Conduct / 61

Eligibility / 61

Education, Training, and Development / 65

Endorsements / 67

Experience / 67

External Credentials / 69

Tests / 69

Work Samples / 72

Work or Personnel Records / 72

Maintenance and Recertification / 73

Missteps and Oversights / 74

Tips / 74

Summary / 76

Where to Learn More / 77

Notes / 78

Chapter 4 The Standards / 79

Competencies, Standards, and Criteria / 81

Defi ning the Scope of the Effort / 85

The Job or Task Analysis / 89

Traditional Job/Task Analysis Methodologies / 89

Controlling Bias / 91

Sampling Error / 92

Design Error / 95

Administrative Error / 109

Design of the Credential / 111

Certification vs. Certificate / 111

The Elements / 114

Missteps and Oversights / 115

Tips / 116

Standards / 118

The Design / 119

Summary / 119

Procedures / 121

Focus Groups / 121

The NGT / 122

Outcome-Based Competency Session / 123

Delphi Study / 124

Where to Learn More / 125

Note / 126

Chapter 5 Assessment / 127

Definitions / 127

Rigor and Validity / 130

Sampling Error / 131

Under-Representation / 131

Extraneous Abilities / 132

Test Specifications / 133

Design Errors / 134

Administrative Error / 136

Types of Test Items / 137

Response-Supplied Items / 137

Response-Not-Supplied Items / 138

Computer-Based Testing / 141

Determining the Passing Score / 142

Informed Judgment Method / 143

Contrasting Group Method / 143

Conjectural (Angoff-Nedelsky) Method / 145

Issues in Assessment and Testing / 146

Opportunity to Learn / 146

Adequate Time and Resources / 147

Face Validity / 147

Documentation / 148

Missteps and Oversights / 148

Tips / 149

Summary / 155

Where to Learn More / 161

Chapter 6 Governance and Administration / 163

Responsibilities of the Governance Board / 163

Candidate Rights / 165

Disclosure / 165

Appeals and Exemptions / 167

Preparation and Remediation / 169

Ethics / 170

Fees and Compensation / 170

Test Administration / 174

Responsibilities of the Program Administrator / 175

Establishing Administrative Support Systems / 176

Analyzing Test Items / 177

Missteps and Oversights / 178

Tips / 179

Summary / 187

Where to Learn More / 190

Notes / 191

Chapter 7 Recertification and Maintenance / 193

Stability of Enabling Knowledge / 194

Distinguishing Between Knowledge Atrophy and Knowledge Evolution / 195

Defining the Purpose of Recertification or Maintenance / 198

Redoing the Job/Task Analysis / 199

Timing the Requirement / 200

Missteps and Oversights / 201

Tips / 201

Summary / 203

Where to Learn More / 205

Chapter 8 Implementation / 207

The Marketing Strategy / 208

Defining the Market / 209

Branding the Credential / 210

Launching the Credential / 211

Rolling Out the Credential and Penetrating a Market / 212

Developing and Executing a Communication Plan / 213

Developing Effective Program Materials / 214

Celebrating Success / 215

Missteps and Oversights / 216

Tips / 217

Summary / 220

Where to Learn More / 220

Chapter 9 Going Global / 221

Distinctions Among National, International, Global, and Multi-National Programs / 221

Why Go Global or International? / 224

Determining Reciprocity, Equivalency, and Exemptions / 225

Safeguarding Against Fraud or Misrepresentation / 226

Cultural Issues / 227

Language and Translation / 227

Missteps and Oversights / 229

Tips / 230

Summary / 230

Where to Learn More / 233

Note / 233

Chapter 10 Evaluation / 235

Developing an Evaluation Strategy / 235

Defining Evaluation Processes / 236

Determining What to Measure / 237

Determining Where to Start / 238

Being Clear About Your Purpose / 242

Developing an Agenda / 244

Presenting Your Data / 244

Missteps and Oversights / 246

Tips / 247

Summary / 248

Where to Learn More / 251

Index / 253

About the Author / 269

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Judith Hale is president of the consulting firm Hale Associates. Their services include consultation on assessment, certification, evaluation, and integration of performance improvement systems with performance management. She is also the author of the Performance Consultant's Fieldbook, Performance-Based Evaluation. Performance-Based Management, and Outsourcing Training and Management all from Pfeiffer

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