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Radio Protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced

ISBN: 978-1-118-18853-8
352 pages
September 2012
Radio Protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced (1118188535) cover image

Provides a unique focus on radio protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A)

Giving readers a valuable understanding of LTE radio protocols, this book covers LTE (Long-Term Evolution) Layer 2/3 radio protocols as well as new features including LTE-Advanced. It is divided into two sections to differentiate between the two technologies’ characteristics. The authors systematically explain the design principles and functions of LTE radio protocols during the development of mobile handsets. The book also provides essential knowledge on the interaction between mobile networks and mobile handsets.

  • Among the first publications based on the 3GPP R10 specifications, which introduces LTE-A
  • Beginning with an overview of LTE, topics covered include: Idle Mode Procedure; Packet Data Convergence Protocol and Public Warning Systems
  • Presents the LTE radio interface protocol layers in a readable manner, to enhance the material in the standards publications
  • From an expert author team who have been directly working on the 3GPP standards

It is targeted at professionals working or intending to work in the area and can also serve as supplementary reading material for students who need to know how theory on the most extensively used mobile radio interface today is put into practice

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Foreword by Takehiro Nakamura xiii

Preface xv

About the Authors xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 3GPP 1

1.2 Evolutionary Path of 3GPP Systems 4

1.2.1 GSM 4

1.2.2 GPRS/EDGE 6

1.2.3 UMTS 7

1.2.4 HSPA 8

1.2.5 LTE 9

1.3 Market Trend 10

1.4 Requirement of LTE 11

1.5 Overview of LTE Architecture 14

1.5.1 Network Architecture 14

1.5.2 QoS Architecture 18

1.5.3 Radio Protocol Architecture of LTE 21

1.6 UE Capabilities 24

References 26

2 Idle Mode Procedure 27

2.1 Idle Mode Functions 27

2.2 Services and Cell Categorization 29

2.3 UE States and State Transitions 30

2.4 PLMN Selection 31

2.4.1 Triggering of PLMN Selection 32

2.4.2 Search of Available PLMNs 32

2.4.3 PLMN Selection 32

2.5 Location Registration 34

2.6 Cell Selection 34

2.6.1 Cell Selection Criterion 35

2.6.2 Cell Selection upon RRC Connection Release 36

2.7 Cell Reselection 36

2.7.1 Measurement Rules 37

2.7.2 Reselection to a Neighboring Cell 39

2.7.3 Mobility State Dependent Scaling 41

2.8 Access Verification 43

2.8.1 Cell Barring Status and Cell Reservation Status 43

2.9 Paging Reception 44

References 45

3 Radio Resource Control (RRC) 47

3.1 RRC Functions and Architecture 48

3.2 System Information 50

3.2.1 Scheduling of System Information 50

3.2.2 System Information Update 54

3.3 Paging 55

3.4 Connection Establishment 56

3.4.1 Step 1: Access Class Barring 57

3.4.2 Step 2: Transmission of the RRCConnectionRequest Message 58

3.4.3 Step 3: Receipt of the RRCConnectionSetup Message 59

3.4.4 Step 4: Transmission of the RRCConnectionSetupComplete Message 59

3.5 Security 60

3.6 RRC Connection Reconfiguration 63

3.6.1 SRB2 Establishment 63

3.6.2 DRB Establishment 63

3.6.3 Parallel Procedure with Security Activation 64

3.7 UE Capability Transfer 65

3.8 Intra-EUTRA Handover 65

3.8.1 Handover Preparation 66

3.8.2 Handover Execution 69

3.8.3 Handover Completion 71

3.9 Measurement Control 72

3.9.1 Measurement Configuration 73

3.9.2 Measurement Report Triggering 74

3.9.3 Measurement Reporting 75

3.10 RRC Connection Re-establishment 75

3.11 Inter-RAT Mobility 78

3.11.1 Inter-RAT Mobility from/ to 3GPP Access Systems 78

3.11.2 Inter-RAT Mobility from/ to CDMA2000 Systems 82

3.12 RRC Connection Release 84

Reference 85

4 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) 87

4.1 PDCP Functions and Architecture 87

4.2 Header Compression 89

4.3 Security 91

4.3.1 Integrity Protection 91

4.3.2 Ciphering 92

4.4 Data Transfer 93

4.5 SDU Discard 94

4.6 Handover 95

4.6.1 SRB Behavior at Handover 95

4.6.2 UM DRB Behavior at Handover 95

4.6.3 AM DRB Behavior at Handover 97

4.7 PDCP PDU Formats 99

4.7.1 PDCP Data PDU Formats 99

4.7.2 PDCP Control PDU Formats 100

Reference 100

5 Radio Link Control (RLC) 101

5.1 RLC Functions and Architecture 101

5.1.1 Transparent Mode (TM) RLC 101

5.1.2 Unacknowledged Mode (UM) RLC 102

5.1.3 Acknowledged Mode (AM) RLC 103

5.2 Framing 105

5.3 Reordering 106

5.4 ARQ Operation 108

5.4.1 Polling 108

5.4.2 Status Reporting 109

5.4.3 Retransmission 110

5.4.4 Re-segmentation 111

5.5 Window Operation 112

5.5.1 UM RLC Window Operation 112

5.5.2 AM RLC Window Operation 113

5.6 SDU Discard 113

5.7 RLC Re-establishment 114

5.8 RLC PDU Formats 114

5.8.1 TMD PDU Format 114

5.8.2 UMD PDU Format 115

5.8.3 AMD PDU Format 115

5.8.4 AMD PDU Segment Format 116

5.8.5 STATUS PDU Format 117

Reference 117

6 Medium Access Control (MAC) 119

6.1 MAC Functions and Services 119

6.2 MAC Architecture 120

6.3 MAC Channels and Mapping 121

6.3.1 Transport Channels 121

6.3.2 Logical Channels 122

6.3.3 Channel Mapping 123

6.4 Scheduling 123

6.4.1 Dynamic Scheduling 124

6.4.2 Semi-Persistent Scheduling (SPS) 124

6.5 Scheduling Information Delivery 127

6.5.1 Buffer Status Reporting (BSR) 127

6.5.2 Scheduling Request (SR) 129

6.5.3 Power Headroom Report (PHR) 130

6.6 Logical Channel Prioritization (LCP) 130

6.7 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) 134

6.8 Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) 138

6.8.1 HARQ in the Uplink 140

6.8.2 HARQ in the Downlink 140

6.8.3 TTI Bundling 140

6.8.4 Measurement Gap 142

6.9 Random Access (RA) Procedure 143

6.10 Time Alignment 145

6.11 MAC PDU Formats 146

6.11.1 MAC Control Elements (CEs) 148

6.11.2 MAC PDU for Random Access Response 149

Reference 149

7 Overview of LTE and LTE-Advanced New Features 151

7.1 Voice over LTE (VoLTE) 151

7.2 Home eNB (HeNB) 152

7.3 Public Warning System (PWS) 153

7.4 Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) 153

7.5 Carrier Aggregation (CA) 154

7.6 Relay 155

7.7 Minimization of Drive Test (MDT) 156

7.8 Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) 156

7.9 Machine Type Communication (MTC) 157

8 Voice over LTE (VoLTE) 159

8.1 Voice Solutions for LTE 159

8.1.1 Ultimate Voice Solution 159

8.1.2 Interim Voice Solutions 160

8.2 IMS VoIP 162

8.2.1 IMS Profile 162

8.2.2 Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) 164

8.3 Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB) 167

8.3.1 CSFB to UTRAN or GERAN 168

8.3.2 CSFB to CDMA2000 1xRTT 173

8.4 Service Domain Selection 178

8.4.1 UE Decision between IMS VoIP and CSFB 180

8.5 Comparison between IMS VoIP and CSFB 181

8.6 RAN Optimization for VoIP 181

8.6.1 Robust Header Compression (ROHC) 182

8.6.2 TTI Bundling 182

8.6.3 Semi-Persistent Scheduling for HARQ 183

References 183

9 Home eNB (HeNB) 185

9.1 Architectural Framework 186

9.1.1 Access Mode 186

9.1.2 Use Cases 187

9.1.3 High-level Requirements 188

9.1.4 Network Architecture 189

9.2 CSG Provisioning 189

9.2.1 CSG Subscription Data 190

9.2.2 CSG Member Status 190

9.3 System Information Related to CSG 190

9.3.1 CSG Identification Information 191

9.3.2 CSG Cell Deployment Information 192

9.4 Identification of CSG 193

9.4.1 Autonomous CSG Search 193

9.4.2 Manual CSG Selection 193

9.5 Mobility with CSG Cells 194

9.5.1 Mobility in RRC_IDLE 194

9.5.2 Mobility in RRC_CONNECTED 196

9.6 Support for Hybrid Cells 200

9.6.1 Motivation 200

9.6.2 Features 201

References 203

10 Public Warning System (PWS) 205

10.1 Warning System Architecture 206

10.2 Warning Messages 207

10.3 Delivery of Warning Messages on a Network 209

10.3.1 Warning Message Delivery Procedure 209

10.3.2 Warning Message Cancel Procedure 211

10.4 Delivery of Warning Messages over the Radio Interface 212

10.4.1 PWS Notifications in System Information 213

10.4.2 Indication of PWS Notifications in Paging 214

10.4.3 Segmentation of Warning Messages 214

References 215

11 Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) 217

11.1 MBMS Services 217

11.2 Architecture and Functions for MBMS 218

11.3 MBSFN Transmissions 221

11.4 Radio Protocols for MBMS 222

11.4.1 Layers 1 and 2 for MBMS 222

11.4.2 Layer 3 for MBMS 224

11.5 MBMS Procedures 226

11.5.1 MBMS Session Start 226

11.5.2 MCCH Information Acquisition and MRB Configuration 228

11.5.3 MBMS Session Update 229

11.5.4 MBMS Session Stop 230

11.5.5 MRB Release 231

11.6 MBMS Enhancements in Releases 10 and 11 232

11.6.1 MBMS Counting 232

11.6.2 MBMS Service Continuity 234

References 235

12 Carrier Aggregation (CA) 237

12.1 Spectrum and Deployment Scenarios 240

12.1.1 Spectrum Scenarios 240

12.1.2 Deployment Scenarios 241

12.2 Cell Management 243

12.2.1 PCell and SCell 243

12.2.2 Signaling of Configuration Information 244

12.2.3 Linkages and References 244

12.2.4 Cross-Carrier Scheduling 245

12.2.5 Extended Measurements 247

12.2.6 SCell Management 250

12.2.7 Mobility with Carrier Aggregation 250

12.3 Extended MAC Functions 251

12.3.1 SCell Activation and Deactivation 251

12.3.2 Power Headroom Reporting (PHR) 253

12.3.3 Logical Channel Prioritization (LCP) 256

12.3.4 Buffer Status Report (BSR) 257

12.3.5 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) 258

12.3.6 Semi-Persistent Scheduling (SPS) 258

References 259

13 Relay 261

13.1 Deployment Scenarios 261

13.2 Network Architecture for the Relay Node 262

13.3 Types of Relay Node 264

13.3.1 Layer Performing Relaying 264

13.3.2 Frequency Separation of Uu and Un Links 266

13.4 Relay Node-Specific Operation 267

13.4.1 Bearer Mapping 267

13.4.2 Integrity Protection for a UnDRB 268

13.4.3 RN Subframe Configuration 270

13.4.4 Update of System Information 271

13.4.5 RN Reconfiguration Procedure 271

13.5 Relay Node Start-Up Procedure 272

13.6 Simplified Operation of Release 10 Relay Node 274

References 275

14 Minimization of Driving Test (MDT) 277

14.1 Architectural Framework 278

14.1.1 Use Cases 279

14.1.2 Initiation of the MDT Task with UE Selection 280

14.1.3 Collection of MDT Measurement Results 281

14.2 Logged MDT 281

14.2.1 Configuration Phase 283

14.2.2 Logging Phase 284

14.2.3 Reporting Phase 286

14.3 Immediate MDT 289

14.3.1 Configuration Phase 290

14.3.2 Measurement and Evaluation Phase 291

14.3.3 Reporting Phase 291

14.3.4 MDT Context Transfer 291

References 292

15 Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) 293

15.1 Heterogeneous Network Deployment 293

15.1.1 Interference in Heterogeneous Networks 295

15.1.2 Limitation of Frequency Domain ICIC 296

15.2 CA-based ICIC 298

15.3 Time Domain ICIC 299

15.3.1 Restricted Measurements 300

15.3.2 Macro–Pico Cell Scenario 301

15.3.3 Macro–Femto Cell Scenario 303

15.3.4 Network Configuration 303

References 304

16 Machine Type Communication (MTC) 305

16.1 Overload Control for MTC 305

16.1.1 Overload Control in Release 8 306

16.1.2 Core Network Overload Control in Release 10 307

16.1.3 RAN Overload Control in Release 11 310

16.2 MTC Features in 3GPP 311

References 312

Index 313

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