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Livable Communities for Aging Populations: Urban Design for Longevity

ISBN: 978-1-118-19728-8
272 pages
March 2012
Livable Communities for Aging Populations: Urban Design for Longevity (1118197283) cover image

An innovative look at design solutions for building lifelong neighborhoods

Livable Communities for Aging Populations provides architects and designers with critical guidance on urban planning and building design that allows people to age in their own homes and communities. The focus is on lifelong neighborhoods, where healthcare and accessibility needs of residents can be met throughout their entire life cycle.

Written by M. Scott Ball, a Duany Plater-Zyberk architect with extensive expertise in designing for an aging society, this important work explores the full range of factors involved in designing for an aging population—from social, economic, and public health policies to land use, business models, and built form. Ball examines in detail a number of case studies of communities that have implemented lifelong solutions, discussing how to apply these best practices to communities large and small, new and existing, urban and rural. Other topics include:

  • How healthcare and disability can be integrated into an urban environment as a lifelong function

  • The need for partnership between healthcare providers, community support services, and real-estate developers

  • How to handle project financing and take advantage of lessons learned in the senior housing industry

  • The role of transportation, access, connectivity, and building diversity in the success of lifelong neighborhoods

Architects, urban planners, urban designers, and developers will find Livable Communities for Aging Populations both instructive and inspiring. The book also includes a wealth of pertinent information for public health officials working on policy issues for aging populations.

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FOREWORD, Andrés Duany xi

INTRODUCTION, Robert Jenkens xiii

PREFACE xiv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xviii

PART I CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 1

1 THE LONGEVITY CHALLENGE TO URBANISM 3

The Challenge 3

The Scale of Response: Pedestrian Sheds and Neighborhoods 7

Seniors Housing Communities as Change Agents 11

Toward the Development of Lifelong Neighborhoods 14

Conclusions 18

2 ACCESS AND URBANISM 21

Introduction 21

Go Forth Boldly 22

On Whose Behalf We Regulate 24

Advancing Accessibility Aspirations Beyond Minimum Standards 31

Stewardship 38

3 HEALTH, HEALTHCARE, AND URBANISM 45

Environmental Health, Safety, and Welfare 45

Reestablishing a Healthy Land-Use Paradigm 48

Knowledge and Action: Finding an Institutional Basis for Public Health and Land-Use Planning Integration 50

Beyond Intent and Toxicity: Establishing Frameworks for Planning Action 54

Beyond Planning: Healthy Environment Implementation Frameworks 64

4 NEIGHBORHOOD WELLNESS AND RECREATION 71

Urban Design and Wellness Industry Market Research 71

Aging and Wellness 73

Redefining the Lifelong Environment: Wellness in Community 77

Conclusion 86

PART II NETWORKS AND DIVERSITY 87

5 CONNECTIONS 89

Connectivity 91

Pedestrian Access and Transit 103

6 DIVERSITY 109

Planning for Diversity 109

Zoning for Diversity 111

Building Codes and Housing Diversity 121

PART III SENIORS HOUSING 125

7 EVOLUTION OF SENIOR DEVELOPMENT TYPES 129

Early Senior Care Models 129

Institutional Neglect 133

Diversification of the Senior Housing Type 134

8 THE LIFELONG NEIGHBORHOOD MARKET 149

Market Study Elements of Critical Importance to Lifelong Neighborhoods 149

Factors That Contribute to Residency in Age-Restricted Communities 156

Factors That Deter Older Adults from Moving to Age-Restricted Communities 164

Lifelong Neighborhoods and Influencing Factors 167

9 SENIORS HOUSING COMPONENTS 171

Initiating Lifelong Neighborhood Design with a Market Study 172

Seniors Housing Components 174

Service Policy Components 198

Built-Environment Policy Components 199

PART IV URBAN TO RURAL CASE STUDIES 207

10 PENN SOUTH NORC CASE STUDY OF AGING A DENSE URBAN CORE 209

Lifelong Summary 209

Context 210

Innovations in Health and Wellness Programming: Penn South Discovers the NORC Concept 212

Connectivity and Access 214

Dwellings and Retail 216

Health and Wellness 218

Community Building Spaces 219

Jeff Dullea Intergenerational Garden 220

11 BEACON HILL CASE STUDY OF AGING AND TOWN CENTERS 223

Lifelong Summary 223

Context 224

Innovations in Health and Wellness Programming 225

Connectivity and Access 226

Dwellings and Retail 227

Health and Wellness 230

Community Building Spaces 232

12 MABLETON CASE STUDY OF AGING AND NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER 235

Lifelong Summary 235

Overview 237

Context 238

Redeveloping as a Lifelong Community 239

Mableton Elementary School Redeveloped as a Civic Center 253

13 ELDER-CENTRIC VILLAGES: EXPLORING HOW SENIOR HOUSING CAN INCENTIVIZE URBAN RENEWAL IN RURAL AMERICA 257

Lifelong Summary 257

Evaluating Small-Town Living and Walkability 259

Providing an Elder-Centric Village 263

INDEX 267

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M. Scott Ball is an Atlanta-based architect and senior project manager for Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company (DPZ). He was previously involved in numerous hurricane recovery housing efforts and the creation of Louisiana's The Road Home and Mississippi Home Again programs. Ball was also co-executive director of the Community Housing Resource Center in Atlanta and served as president of the Association for Community Design, a national network of community design associations.

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