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Desalination: Water from Water

Jane Kucera (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-20852-6
664 pages
February 2014
Desalination: Water from Water (1118208528) cover image

This is the first volume to cover desalination in such depth and detail, offering engineers, technicians, and operators full coverage of the applications, economics, and expectations of what will certainly become one of the most important water-related processes on the planet.  Covering thermal processes and membrane processes, this is the only volume any engineer working in desalination must have, covering both practical and theoretical issues encountered on a daily basis.  Certain to be an important contribution to the water management community.

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Preface xvii

Contributing Authors xix

Notice from the Publisher xxxi

Section I Introduction 1

1 Introduction to Desalination 3
Jane Kucera

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 How Much Water is There? 4

1.3 Finding More Fresh Water 8

1.4 Desalination: Water from Water 12

1.5 Desalination: Water from Water Outline 32

Section II Traditional Thermal Process 39

2 Thermal Desalination Processes 41
Joachim Gebel

2.1 Thermodynamic Fundamentals 41

2.2 Mass- and Energy Balances 56

2.3 Performance of Thermal Desalination Processes 115

2.4 Historical Review 139

2.5 State-of-the-Art 143

2.6 Future Prospects 150

Section III Membrane Processes 155

3 The Reverse Osmosis Process 157
Mark Wilf

3.1 The Reverse Osmosis Process 157

3.2 Permeate Recovery Rate (Conversion Ratio) 159

3.3 Net Driving Pressure 159

3.4 Salt - Water Separation in Reverse Osmosis Process 160

3.5 Water Transport 161

3.6 Salt Transport 162

3.7 Salt Passage and Salt Rejection 163

3.8 Temperature Effect on Transport Rate 164

3.9 Average Permeate Flux 165

3.10 Specifi c Water Permeability of a Membrane 165

3.11 Concentration Polarization 166

3.12 Commercial RO/NF Membrane Technology 166

3.13 Cellulose Acetate Membranes 167

3.14 Composite Polyamide Membranes 169

3.15 Membrane Module Confi gurations 171

3.16 Spiral Wound Elements 171

3.17 Spiral Wound Element Categories 174

3.18 RO System Confi guration 177

3.19 Membrane Assembly Unit 179

3.20 Concentrate Staging 180

3.21 Permeate Staging (Two Pass Systems) 182

3.22 Partial Two Pass Confi guration 183

3.23 Calculation of System Performance 185

3.24 Monitoring of Process Parameters and Equipment Performance in RO System 189

3.25 Normalization of RO System Performance 191

3.26 Membrane Elements Fouling Process 195

3.27 Performance Restoration 198

4 Nanofi ltration – Theory and Application 205
Christopher Bellona

4.1 Introduction 206

4.2 Defining Nanofi ltration 206

4.3 History of Nanofi ltration 210

4.4 Theory 212

4.5 Application 225

4.6 Conclusions 238

5 Forward Osmosis 255
Jeffrey McCutcheon and Nhu-Ngoc Bui

5.1 The Limitations of Conventional Desalination 255

5.2 Forward Osmosis 258

5.3 The Draw Solution 262

5.4 The Membrane 265

5.5 Process Design and Desalination Applications 276

5.6 Future Directions 276

5.7 Acknowledgements 277

6 Electrodialysis Desalination 287
Hong-Joo Lee, Seung-Hyeon Moon

6.1 Principles of Electrodialysis 287

6.2 Preparation and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes 290

6.3 ED Equipment Design and Desalination Process 303

6.4 Control of Fouling in an ED Desalination Process 313

6.5 Prospects for ED Desalination 318

6.6 Concluding Remarks 323

7 Continuous Electrodeionization 327
Jonathan H. Wood, Joseph D. Gifford

7.1 Introduction 327

7.2 Development History 329

7.3 Technology Overview 329

7.4 CEDI Module Construction 332

7.5 Electroactive Media Used in CEDI Devices 339

7.6 DC Current and Voltage 341

7.7 System Design Considerations 344

7.8 Process Design Considerations 347

7.9 Operation and Maintenance 357

7.10 Applications 365

7.11 Future Trends 367

8 Membrane Distillation: Now and Future 373
Xing Yang, Anthony G. Fane, Rong Wang

8.1 Introduction 373

8.2 MD Concepts and Historic Development 375

8.3 MD Transport Mechanisms 380

8.4 Strategic Development for an Enhanced MD System 387

8.5 Energy and Cost Evaluation in MD 400

8.6 Innovations on MD Application Development 406

8.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects 408

Section IV Non-Traditional Desalination Processes 425

9 Humidifi cation Dehumidifi cation Desalination 427
G. Prakash Narayan and John H. Lienhard V

9.1 Introduction 427

9.2 Thermal Design 436

9.3 Bubble Column Dehumidifi cation 456

9.4 Cost of Water Production 463

10 Freezing-Melting Desalination Process 473
Mohammad Shafi ur Rahman and Mohamed Al-Khusaibi

10.1 Introduction 473

10.2 Background or History of Freezing Melting Process 475

10.3 Principles of Freezing-Melting Process 476

10.4 Major Types of Freezing-Melting Process 477

10.5 Direct Contact Freezing 477

10.6 Direct Contact Eutectic Freezing 485

10.7 Indirect-Contact FM Process 486

10.8 Vacuum Process 489

10.9 Block FM Process 490

10.10 Applications 491

10.11 Future Challenges 493

11 Desalination by Ion Exchange 503
Bill Bornak

11.1 Introduction 504

11.2 Early Ion Exchange Desalination Processes 505

11.3 Life after RO 507

11.4 Ion Exchange Softening as Pre-Treatment 508

11.5 Softening by Ion Exchange 509

11.6 Boron-Selective Ion Exchange Resins as Post-Treatment 511

11.7 New Vessel Designs 515

11.8 New Resin Bead Design 517

11.9 Conclusion 519

12 Electrosorption of Heavy Metals with Capacitive Deionization: Water Reuse, Desalination and Resources Recovery 521
Pei Xu, Brian Elson and Jorg E Drewes

12.1 Introduction 522

12.2 Experimental Methods 527

12.3 Results and Discussions 531

12.4 Conclusions 541

Section V Renewable Energy Sources to Power Desalination 549

13 Solar Desalination 551
Mohammad Abutayeh, Chennan Li, D. Yogi Goswami and Elias K. Stefanakos

13.1 Introduction 553

13.2 Direct Solar Desalination 555

13.3 Indirect Solar Desalination 557

13.4 Non−Conventional Solar Desalination 568

13.5 Process Evaluation 572

Section VI Future Expectations 583

14 Future Expectations 585
Patrick V. Brady and Michael M. Hightower

14.1 Introduction 585

14.2 Historical Trends in Fresh Water Supply Development 586

14.3 Emerging Trends and Directions in Alternative Water Supply Development 590

14.4 Desalination for Oil and Gas 600

14.5 The Future of Desalination Technologies 611

14.6 Summary 614

References 615

Index 619

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Jane Kucera has a degree in chemical engineering from UCLA and is a chemical engineer with 32 years experience in the area of membrane technology. Ms. Kucera began her work with membranes in the Seawater Laboratory at UCLA, where she received her master of chemical engineering degree in 1984. She worked for seven years with Bend Research, where she worked on water re-use systems for the International Space Station. Ms. Kucera’s subsequent career path is a “who’s who” of the world’s most respected companies involved in water treatment, including GE and Siemens. She joined the Nalco Company in 2003, where she is a senior engineer. She has approximately 40 publications to her credit, including journal articles, presentations, and book chapters. She is also the author of the bestselling Reverse Osmosis, also published under the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.

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