Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage
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Contributors: Names and Affiliations.
Forward (Kenneth Kiple).
Preface (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Figures (Master List).
Tables (Master List).
1. Uto-Aztecan Languages: Geographic Distribution.
2. Mexico and Central America.
3. California: Baja.
4. California: Alta.
5. Northeastern South America.
6. Iberian Peninsula. A Mosaic of Languages.
PART 1: BEGINNINGS AND RELIGION.
Part 1: Beginnings and Religion. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 1: Cacao Use in Yucatán Among the Prehispanic Maya (Gabriella Vail).
Chapter 2: Tempest in a Chocolate Pot. Origins of Mesoamerican Words for Chocolate (Martha Macri).
Chapter 3: Ancient Gods and Christian Celebrations. Chocolate and Religion (Louis Grivetti and Beatriz Cabezon).
Chapter 4: Chocolate and Sinful Behaviors. Inquisition Testimonies (Beatriz Cabezon and Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 5: Nation of Nowhere. Jewish Role in Colonial American Chocolate History (Celia Shapiro).
PART 2: MEDICINE AND RECIPES.
Part 2: Medicine and Recipes. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 6: Medicinal Chocolate in New Spain, Western Europe, and North America (Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 7: Chocolate and the Boston Smallpox Epidemic of 1764 (Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 8: From Bean to Beverage. Historical Chocolate Recipes (Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 9: Imparting Dietary Advice and Moral Values Through 19th Century North American Cookbooks (Deanna Pucciarelli).
PART 3: SERVING AND ADVERTISING.
Part 3: Serving and Advertising. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 10: Chocolate Preparation and Serving Vessels in Early North America (Amanda Lange).
Chapter 11: Silver Chocolate Pots of Colonial Boston (Gerald Ward).
Chapter 12: Is it a Chocolate Pot? Chocolate and Its Accoutrements in France from Cookbook to Collectible (Suzanne Perkins).
Chapter 13: Chocolate Pots. Reflections of Cultures, Values, and Times (Margaret Swisher).
Chapter 14: Role of Trade Cards in Marketing Chocolate During the Late 19th Century (Virginia Westbrook).
Chapter 15: Chocolate Advertising Posters. Reflections of Cultures, Values, and Times (Margaret Swisher).
Chapter 16: Chocolate at World’s Fairs, 1851-1964 (Nicholas Westbrook).
PART 4: ECONOMICS, EDUCATION, AND CRIME.
Part 4: Economics, Education, and Crime. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 17: Pirates, Prizes and Profits. Cocoa and Early American East Coast Trade (Kurt Richter and Nghiem Ta).
Chapter 18: How Much Is That Cocoa In The Window? Cocoa's Position in the Early American Marketplace (Kurt Richter and Nghiem Ta).
Chapter 19: "C" is for Chocolate. Chocolate and Cacao as Educational Themes in 18th Century North America (Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 20: Chocolate, Crime, and the Courts. Selected English Trial Documents (1693-1834) (Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 21: Dark Chocolate: Chocolate and Crime in North America and Elsewhere (Louis Grivetti).
PART 5. COLONIAL AND FEDERAL ERAS (PART 1).
Part 5: Colonial and Federal Eras (Part 1). Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 22: Chocolate and Other Colonial Beverages (Frank Clark).
Chapter 23: Chocolate Production and Uses in 17th and 18th Century North America (Jim Gay).
Chapter 24: Chocolate’s Early History in Canada (Catherine Macpherson).
Chapter 25: A Necessary Luxury: Chocolate in Louisbourg and New France (Ann-Marie Jonah, Ruby Fougère, and Heidi Moses).
Chapter 26: Chocolate Manufacturing and Marketing in Massachusetts (1700-1920) (Anne Blaschke).
Chapter 27. Boston Chocolate. Newspaper Articles and Advertisements (1700-1825) (Louis Grivetti).
PART 6: COLONIAL AND FEDERAL ERAS (PART 2).
Part 6: Colonial and Federal Eras (Part 2). Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 28: Dutch Cacao Trade in New Netherlands during the 17th and 18th Centuries (Peter Rose).
Chapter 29: Chocolate Consumption and Production in New York’s Upper Hudson River Valley (1730-1830) (Douglas McCombs).
Chapter 30: Chocolate Makers in 18th Century Pennsylvania (Jim Gay).
Chapter 31: Breakfasting on Chocolate: Chocolate in Military Life on the Northern Frontier (1750-1780) (Nicholas Westbrook, Christopher Fox, and Ann McCarty).
Chapter 32: Chocolate and North American Whaling Voyages (Christopher Kelly).
PART 7: SOUTHEAST/SOUTHWEST BORDERLANDS AND CALIFORNIA.
Part 7: Southeast/Southwest Borderlands and California. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 33: Blood, Conflict, and Faith. Chocolate in the Southeast and Southwest Borderlands of North America. Spanish and Mexican Periods (1641-1833) (Beatriz Cabezon, Patricia Barriga, and Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 34: Sailors, Soldiers, and Padres. California Chocolate (1542-1840) (Louis Grivetti, Patricia Barriga, and Beatriz Cabezon).
Chapter 35: From Gold Bar to Chocolate Bar: California Chocolate from the Gold Rush Era to the Early 20th Century (Bertram Gordon).
PART 8: CARIBBEAN AND SOUTH AMERICA.
Part 8: Caribbean and South America. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 36: Caribbean Cocoa: Planting and Production (Janet Momsen and Pamela Richardson).
Chapter 37: Caribbean Chocolate: Preparation, Consumption, and Trade (Janet Momsen and Pamela Richardson).
Chapter 38: History of Cacao Cultivation and Chocolate Consumption in Cuba (Niurka Nuñez González and Estrella González Noriega).
Chapter 39: History of Cacao and Chocolate in Cuban Literature, Games, Music, and Culinary Arts (Niurka Nuñez González and Estrella González Noriega).
Chapter 40: Portuguese Colonial Cacao Cultivation in Brazil and West Africa (c. 1580-1912) (Timothy Walker).
PART 9: EUROPE AND ASIA.
Part 9: Europe and Asia. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 41: Cure or Confection? Chocolate in the Portuguese Royal Court and Colonial Hospitals (1580-1830) (Timothy Walker).
Chapter 42: Chocolate in France. Evolution of a Luxury Product (Bertram Gordon).
Chapter 43: Commerce, Colonies, and Cacao: Chocolate in England from Introduction to Industrialization (Bertram Gordon).
Chapter 44: Ambergris, Emperors, and Export Ware. Early Reports of Chinese Chocolate (Bertram Gordon).
PART 10: PRODUCTION, MANUFACTURING, AND CONTEMPORARY ACTIVITIES.
Part 10: Production, Manufacturing, and Contemporary Activities. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 45: Cacao, Haciendas, and the Jesuits. Letters from New Spain (1693-1751) (Beatriz Cabezon).
Chapter 46: From Stone Metates to Steel Mills. The Evolution of Chocolate Manufacturing (Rodney Snyder, Bradley Olsen, and Laura Brindle).
Chapter 47: Adulteration. The Dark World of "Dirty" Chocolate (Laura Brindle and Bradley Olsen).
Chapter 48: Making Colonial Era Chocolate. The Colonial Williamsburg Experience (Jim Gay and Frank Clark).
Chapter 49: American Heritage Chocolate. Development of a Good Idea (Eric Whitacre, William Bellody and Rodney Snyder).
Chapter 50: Twenty-first Century Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Medicinal Use of Chocolate (Deanna Pucciarelli and James Barrett).
PART 1: FIELDWORK, METHODOLOGY, AND INTERPRETATION.
Part 11: Fieldwork, Methodology, and Interpretation. Introduction to the Theme (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 51: Symbols from Ancient Times. Paleography and the San Augustine Chocolate Saga (Beatriz Cabezon and Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 52: Digging for Chocolate in Charleston and Savannah (Laura Brindle and Bradley Olsen).
Chapter 53: Management of Cacao and Chocolate Data. Development of Concept Maps and the Chocolate Research Portal (Matthew Lange).
Chapter 54: North American Base Metal Chocolate Pots. Context and Interpretation (Phil Dunning and Christopher Fox).
Chapter 55: Searching American Civil War Archives. Blue and Gray Chocolate (Louis Grivetti).
Chapter 56: Chocolate Futures: Promising Areas for Further Research (Louis Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro).
Chapter 57: Epilogue: Synthesis and Celebration (Howard Shapiro and Louis Grivetti).
Appendix 1: Lexicon and Abbreviations (Team contributions).
Appendix 2: Archives, Libraries, and Museums Consulted (Team contributions).
Appendix 3: Common Sense Rules for Working in Archives, Libraries, and Museums (Bertram Gordon and Louis Grivetti).
Appendix 4: Digitized Resources Consulted (Team contributions).
Appendix 5: Saint Augustine, Florida, 1642. Chocolate Distribution List: Names, Occupations, and Quantities Received (Beatriz Cabezon translation).
Appendix 6: Boston Chocolate (1700-1825): People, Occupations, and Addresses (Louis Grivetti).
Appendix 7: The Ninety and Nine. A Selection of Notable Chocolate-Associated Quotations, 1502-1953, (Team contributions).
Appendix 8: Chocolate Timeline: c. 4,000 BCE - 2008 CE (Team contributions).
Appendix 9: Pre-1800 Cacao/Chocolate Publications (Axel Borg and Adam Siegel).
Appendix 10: Nutritional Properties of Cocoa (Robert Rucker).
Appendix 11: Project Personnel and Affiliations (1998-2008).