Survey Methodology, 2nd Edition
"The book makes a valuable contribution by synthesizing current research and identifying areas for future investigation for each aspect of the survey process."
—Journal of the American Statistical Association
"Overall, the high quality of the text material is matched by the quality of writing . . ."
—Public Opinion Quarterly
". . . it should find an audience everywhere surveys are being conducted."
This new edition of Survey Methodology continues to provide a state-of-the-science presentation of essential survey methodology topics and techniques. The volume's six world-renowned authors have updated this Second Edition to present newly emerging approaches to survey research and provide more comprehensive coverage of the major considerations in designing and conducting a sample survey.
Key topics in survey methodology are clearly explained in the book's chapters, with coverage including sampling frame evaluation, sample design, development of questionnaires, evaluation of questions, alternative modes of data collection, interviewing, nonresponse, post-collection processing of survey data, and practices for maintaining scientific integrity. Acknowledging the growing advances in research and technology, the Second Edition features:
- Updated explanations of sampling frame issues for mobile telephone and web surveys
New scientific insight on the relationship between nonresponse rates and nonresponse errors
Restructured discussion of ethical issues in survey research, emphasizing the growing research results on privacy, informed consent, and confidentiality issues
The latest research findings on effective questionnaire development techniques
The addition of 50% more exercises at the end of each chapter, illustrating basic principles of survey design
An expanded FAQ chapter that addresses the concerns that accompany newly established methods
Providing valuable and informative perspectives on the most modern methods in the field, Survey Methodology, Second Edition is an ideal book for survey research courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an indispensable reference for practicing survey methodologists and any professional who employs survey research methods.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xix
CHAPTER 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO SURVEY METHODOLOGY
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 A Brief History of Survey Research 3
1.3 Some Examples of Ongoing Surveys 7
1.4 What is Survey Methodology? 30
1.5 The Challenge of Survey Methodology 32
1.6 About this Book 34
CHAPTER 2. INFERENCE AND ERROR IN SURVEYS
2.1 Introduction 39
2.2 The Lifecycle of a Survey From a Design Perspective 41
2.3 The Lifecycle of a Survey from A Quality Perspective 49
2.4 Putting It All Together 60
2.5 Error Notions in Different Kinds of Statistics 61
2.6 Nonstatistical Notions of Survey Quality 62
2.7 Summary 63
CHAPTER 3. TARGET POPULATIONS, SAMPLING FRAMES, AND COVERAGE ERROR
3.1 Introduction 69
3.2 Populations and Frames 69
3.3 Coverage Properties of Sampling Frames 72
3.4 Alternative Frames for the Target Population of Households or Persons 81
3.5 Frame Issues for Other Common Target Populations 84
3.6 Coverage Error 87
3.7 Reducing Undercoverage 88
3.8 Summary 94
CHAPTER 4. SAMPLE DESIGN AND SAMPLING ERROR
4.1 Introduction 97
4.2 Samples and Estimates 99
4.3 Simple Random Sampling 103
4.4 Cluster Sampling 106
4.5 Stratification and Stratified Sampling 113
4.6 Systematic Selection 123
4.7 Complications in Practice 125
4.8 Sampling US Telephone Households 133
4.9 Selecting Persons Within Households 136
4.10 Summary 138
CHAPTER 5. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
5.1 Alternative Methods of Data Collection 150
5.2 Choosing the Appropriate Method 159
5.3 Effects of Different Data Collection Methods on Survey Errors 160
5.4 Using Multiple Modes of Data Collection 175
5.5 Summary 177
CHAPTER 6. NONRESPONSE IN SAMPLE SURVEYS
6.1 Introduction 183
6.2 Response Rates 183
6.3 Impact of Nonresponse on the Quality of Survey Estimates 189
6.4 Thinking Causally About Survey Nonresponse Error 191
6.5 Dissecting the Nonresponse Phenomenon 192
6.6 Design Features to Reduce Unit Nonresponse 201
6.7 Item Nonresponse 208
6.8 Are Nonresponse Propensities Related to Other Error Sources? 210
6.9 Summary 210
CHAPTER 7. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN SURVEYS
7.1 Alternatives Methods of Survey Measurement 217
7.2 Cognitive Processes in Answering Questions 218
7.3 Problems in Answering Survey Questions 225
7.4 Guidelines for Writing Good Questions 242
7.5 Summary 252
CHAPTER 8. EVALUATING SURVEY QUESTIONS
8.1 Introduction 259
8.2 Expert Reviews 260
8.3 Focus Groups 261
8.4 Cognitive Interviews 263
8.5 Field Pretests and Behavior Coding 265
8.6 Randomized or Split-Ballot Experiments 267
8.7 Applying Question Standards 268
8.8 Summary of Question Evaluation Tools 269
8.9 Linking Concepts of Measurement Quality to Statistical Estimates 274
8.10 Summary 286
CHAPTER 9. SURVEY INTERVIEWING
9.1 The Role of the Interviewer 291
9.2 Interviewer Bias 292
9.3 Interviewer Variance 295
9.4 Strategies for Reducing Interviewer Bias 300
9.5 Strategies for Reducing Interviewer-Related Variance 302
9.6 The Controversy About Standardized Interviewing 312
9.7 Interviewer Management 315
9.8 Validating the Work of Interviewers 319
9.9 The Use of Recorded Voices (and Faces) in Data Collection 322
9.10 Summary 323
CHAPTER 10. POSTCOLLECTION PROCESSING OF SURVEY DATA
10.1 Introduction 329
10.2 Coding 331
10.3 Entering Numeric Data into Files 344
10.4 Editing 345
10.5 Weighting 347
10.6 Imputation for Item-missing data 354
10.7 Sampling Variance Estimation for Complex Samples 359
10.8 Survey Data Documentation and Metadata 363
10.9 Summary 365
CHAPTER 11. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES RELATED TO ETHICAL RESEARCH
11.1 Introduction 371
11.2 Standards for the Conduct of Research 371
11.3 Standards for Dealing with Clients 374
11.4 Standards for Dealing with the Public 375
11.5 Standards for Dealing with Respondents 376
11.6 Emerging Ethical Issues 384
11.7 Research About Ethical Issues in Surveys 384
11.8 Administrative and Technical Procedures for Safe-Guarding Confidentiality 392
11.9 Summary and Conclusions 398
For More In-Depth Reading
CHAPTER 12. FAQS ABOUT SURVEY METHODOLOGY
12.1 Introduction 405
12.2 The Questions and Their Answers 405
FLOYD J. FOWLER, PhD, is Senior Research Fellow in the Center for Survey Research at the University of Massachusetts Boston.
MICK P. COUPER, PhD, is Research Professor at both the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.
JAMES M. LEPKOWSKI, PhD, is Research Professor at the University of Michigan Survey Research Center, where he is also Associate Professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Director of the Joint Program in Survey Methodology.
ELEANOR SINGER, PhD, is Research Professor Emerita at the University of Michigan Survey Research Center.
ROGER TOURANGEAU, PhD, is Research Professor at both the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.
The total number of exercises in the Second Edition has doubled, providing the reader with even more opportunity to test their comprehension of the presented material.
The use of mobile phones is now intertwined in the book's discussions on data collection, sampling frames, and survey error.
The chapter on nonrepsonse in sample surveys has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest research on the topic.
This new edition serves as a timely update on survey research, reflecting the growing use of technology in the field of survey methods.
The authors acknowledge the growing use of the web for collecting data, with expanded treatment of internet surveys across two chapters.
An expanded FAQ chapter addresses the concerns that accompany the newly-established methods and research variables.