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Reverse Osmosis: Design, Processes, and Applications for Engineers

ISBN: 978-1-118-21144-1
393 pages
September 2011
Reverse Osmosis: Design, Processes, and Applications for Engineers (1118211448) cover image
The most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of reverse osmosis in industrial applications.

Reverse osmosis is rapidly growing as a water treatment technology used for many applications, such as boiler feed water and recovering wastwater for reuse. This "green" technology is becoming more and more widely used in many settings, especially in industry. Even as the technology becomes more widespread, the understanding of the technology is lagging behind. Reverse Osmosis provides an essential reference for any process or chemical engineer working with this emergent technology.

This outstanding reference:

  • Provides a comprehensive and thorough coverage of reverse osmosis technology
  • Discusses fundamental processes and equipment for operating and troubleshooting a reverse osmosis system, such as reverse osmosis principles, membrane technology, and flow patterns
  • Covers more advanced engieering topics for specific industrial applications, such as system design
  • Features clear, consise language written in easy-to-understand language, providing engineers immediate ability to implement a reverse osmosis program
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1. Introduction and History of Development.

1.1. Uses of Reverse Osmosis.

1.2. History of Reverse Osmosis Development.

2. Reverse Osmosis Principles.

2.1. Osmosis.

2.2. Reverse Osmosis.

2.3. Dead-End Filtration.

2.4. Cross-Flow Filtration.

3. Basic Terms and Definitions.

3.1. RO System Flow Rating.

3.2. Recovery.

3.3. Rejection.

3.4. Flux.

3.5. Concentration Polarization.

3.6. Beta.

3.7. Fouling.

3.8. Scaling.

3.9. Silt Density Index (SDI).

3.10. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI).

4. Membranes.

4.1. Transport Models.

4.2. Materials.

4.3. Modules.

4.4. Commercially-Available Membranes.

5. Basic Flow Patterns.

5.1. Arrays.

5.2. Recycle.

5.3. Double Pass.

5.4. Multiple Trains.

6. Reverse Osmosis Skid--with contributions by Mark Sadus.

6.1. Cartridge Filters.

6.2. Feed Pumps.

6.3. Manifolding--Materials of Construction.

6.4. Instrumentation.

6.5. Controls.

6.6. Data Acquisition and Management.

6.7. Auxiliary Equipment.


7. Water Quality Guidelines.

8. Techniques and Technologies.

8.1. Mechanical Pretreatment.

8.2. Chemical Pretreatment.

8.3. Combination Mechanical Plus Chemical Treatments.

8.4. Sequencing of Pretreatment Technologies.


9. Design Considerations.

9.1. Feed Water Quality.

9.2. Temperature.

9.3. Pressure.

9.4. Feed Water Flow.

9.5. Concentrate Flow.

9.6. Beta.

9.7. Recovery.

9.8. pH.

9.9. Flux.

10. RO Design and Design Software.

10.1. ROSA--Dow Water and Process Solutions.

10.2. TorayDS--Toray Membrane USA.

10.3. IMS Design--Hydranautics.

10.4. ROPro--Koch.


11. On-Line Operations.

11.1. Performance Monitoring.

11.2. Data Collection.

11.3. Data Analysis and Normalization.

11.4. Preventative Maintenance.

12. Performance Degradation.

12.1. Normalized Permeate Flow.

12.2. Normalized Salt Rejection.

12.3. Normalized Differential Pressure.

13. Off-Line Operations.

13.1. System Flush.

13.2. Cleaning.

13.3. Lay-Up.


14. Troubleshooting.

14.1. Mechanical Evaluation.

14.2. General Performance Issues.

14.3. Performance Projections.

14.4. Data Assessment.

14.5. Water Sampling.

14.6. Membrane Integrity Testing.

14.7. Profiling and Probing.

14.8. Membrane Autopsy.


15. Issues Concerning System Engineering.

15.1. Water Softening.

15.2. Sizing and Capacity.

15.3. Membrane Cleaning: On-Site versus Off-Site.

15.4. Reject Disposal Options.

16. Impact of Other Membrane Technologies.

16.1. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration.

16.2. Nanofiltration.

16.3. Continuous Electrodeionization.

16.4. HERO™.


17. Frequently Asked Questions.

17.1. General.

17.2. Operational.

17.3. Equipment.

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Jane Kucera has a degreee in chemical engineering from UCLA and is a chemical engineer with 25 years experieence in the area of membrane technology. Jane began her work with membranes in the Seawater Laboratory at UCLA where she received her Master of Chemical Engineering degree in 1984. She worked for 7 years with Bend Research, where she worked on water re-use systems for the International Space Station. Ms. Kucera's subsequent career path is a "who's who" of the world's most respected companies working in water treatment, including GE and Siemens. She joined the Nalco Company in 2003, where she is a senior engineer with a variety of responsibilities. She has approximately 40 publications to her credit, including journal articles, presentations, and book chapters.
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