# Complete Electronics Self-Teaching Guide with Projects

ISBN: 978-1-118-21732-0
576 pages
July 2012
For Instructors

## Description

An all-in-one resource on everything electronics-related!

For almost 30 years, this book has been a classic text for electronics enthusiasts. Now completely updated for today's technology, this latest version combines concepts, self-tests, and hands-on projects to offer you a completely repackaged and revised resource. This unique self-teaching guide features easy-to-understand explanations that are presented in a user-friendly format to help you learn the essentials you need to work with electronic circuits.

All you need is a general understanding of electronics concepts such as Ohm's law and current flow, and an acquaintance with first-year algebra. The question-and-answer format, illustrative experiments, and self-tests at the end of each chapter make it easy for you to learn at your own speed.

• Boasts a companion website that includes more than twenty full-color, step-by-step projects
• Shares hands-on practice opportunities and conceptual background information to enhance your learning process
• Targets electronics enthusiasts who already have a basic knowledge of electronics but are interested in learning more about this fascinating topic on their own
• Features projects that work with the multimeter, breadboard, function generator, oscilloscope, bandpass filter, transistor amplifier, oscillator, rectifier, and more

You're sure to get a charge out of the vast coverage included in Complete Electronics Self-Teaching Guide with Projects!

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Introduction xvii

CHAPTER 1 DC Review and Pre-Test 1

Current Flow 2

Ohm’s Law 5

Resistors in Series 10

Resistors in Parallel 10

Power12

Small Currents 15

The Graph of Resistance 16

The Voltage Divider 18

The Current Divider 24

Switches 30

Capacitors in a DC Circuit 33

Summary 41

DC Pre-Test 43

CHAPTER 2 The Diode 47

Understanding Diodes  48

Diode Breakdown 70

The Zener Diode 75

Summary 86

Self-Test 87

CHAPTER 3 Introduction to the Transistor 91

Understanding Transistors 92

The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) 123

Summary 129

Self-Test 129

CHAPTER 4 The Transistor Switch 135

Turning the Transistor On 136

Turning Off the Transistor 142

Why Transistors Are Used as Switches 146

The Three-Transistor Switch 161

Alternative Base Switching 166

Switching the JFET 172

Summary 181

Self-Test 182

CHAPTER 5 AC Pre-Test and Review 187

The Generator 188

Resistors in AC Circuits 193

Capacitors in AC Circuits 195

The Inductor in an AC Circuit 202

Resonance 204

Summary 207

Self-Test 207

CHAPTER 6 Filters 211

Capacitors in AC Circuits 212

Capacitors and Resistors in Series 214

Phase Shift of an RC Circuit 239

Resistor and Capacitor in Parallel 246

Inductors in AC Circuits 250

Phase Shift for an RL Circuit 258

Summary 260

Self-Test 260

CHAPTER 7 Resonant Circuits 267

The Capacitor and Inductor in Series 268

The Output Curve 286

Introduction to Oscillators 309

Summary 314

Self-Test .314

CHAPTER 8 Transistor Amplifiers 319

Working with Transistor Amplifiers 320

A Stable Amplifier 330

Biasing 334

The Emitter Follower 350

Analyzing an Amplifier 356

The JFET as an Amplifier 361

The Operational Amplifier 370

Summary 380

Self-Test .380

CHAPTER 9 Oscillators 385

Understanding Oscillators 386

Feedback 396

The Colpitts Oscillator 402

The Hartley Oscillator 414

The Armstrong Oscillator 421

Practical Oscillator Design 422

Simple Oscillator Design Procedure 423

Oscillator Troubleshooting Checklist 426

Summary and Applications 432

Self-Test .432

CHAPTER 10 The Transformer 435

Transformer Basics 436

Transformers in Communications Circuits 447

Summary and Applications 451

Self-Test 452

CHAPTER 11 Power Supply Circuits 455

Diodes in AC Circuits Produce Pulsating DC 456

Level DC (Smoothing Pulsating DC) 474

Summary 490

Self-Test 490

CHAPTER 12 Conclusion and Final Self-Test 493

Conclusion 493

Final Self-Test 495

APPENDIX A Glossary 509

APPENDIX B List of Symbols and Abbreviations 513

APPENDIX C Powers of Ten and Engineering Prefixes 517

APPENDIX D Standard Composition Resistor Values 519

APPENDIX E Supplemental Resources 521

Web Sites 521

Books 522

Magazines 522

Suppliers 523

APPENDIX F Equation Reference 525

APPENDIX G Schematic Symbols Used in This Book 529

Index 533

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## Author Information

Earl Boysen is a veteran engineer who maintains two technology-focused websites, www.buildinggadgets.com and www.understandingnano.com. He is coauthor of the first edition of Electronics For Dummies as well as Electronics Projects For Dummies and Nanotechnology For Dummies, all published by Wiley.

The late Harry Kybett wrote the bestselling first and second editions of Electronics Self-Teaching Guide. He was director of engineering operations at Columbia Pictures Corporation. He built many studios and video systems for the broadcasting industry, and created training programs for Sony Corporation of America.

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Error in Figure 1.5, pg 17
Corrected Figure 1.5
Error in Figure 1.6, pg 18
Corrected Figure 1.6
Error in Problem 30 Answer, pg 27
Error in Problem 30 Answer, page 27
Error in Page 71, Problem 22 22.87 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 8 Answer A, Page 141 3.73 KB Click to Download
Error in Figure 4.10, page 150 48.62 KB Click to Download
Error in Figure 4.11, page 151 37.74 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 33 Answer B, pg 169 5.32 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 4, pg 190 2.81 KB Click to Download
Error in Text, pg 207 2.88 KB Click to Download
Error in Figure 6.34 page 246 10.36 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 31Answer A, pg 254 4.49 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 3A, pg 323 2.66 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 13 Answer A, pg 332 3.00 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 32, pg 363 4.10 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 33, pg 364 4.67 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 36, pg 365 3.99 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 36, pg 365 4.03 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 42, pg 369 2.49 KB Click to Download
Error in Problem 42, pg 369 2.32 KB Click to Download
Error in Figure 11.28, pg 472 332.66 KB Click to Download
Error in Text, pg 527 3.17 KB Click to Download
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## Errata

Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
71 Error in Text
Problem 22:

The diode in the circuit shown in Figure 2-25 is known to break down at 100 volts, and it can safely pass 1 ampere without overheating. Find the resistance in this circuit that would limit the current to 1 ampere.

Should be:
The diode in the circuit shown in Figure 2-25 will break down at 100 volts, and it can safely pass 20 mA without overheating at that voltage. Find the resistance in this circuit that would limit the current to 20 mA.
10/9/2013
105 Error in Text
Problem 16:

It is a property of the transistor that the ratio of collector current to base current is constant. The collector current is always much larger than the base current. The ratio of the two currents is called the current gain of the transistor, and is represented by the symbol β, or beta. Typical values of β range from 10 to 300.

Should be:
The ratio of the collector current to base current in a transistor is called the current gain, which is represented by the symbol β, or beta. The collector current is always much larger than the base current. Typical values of β range from 10 to 300.
10/9/2013
108 Error in Text
Page 108:
?Current gain is a physical property of transistors. You can find its value in the manufacturers? published data sheets, or you can determine it by experimenting. In general, β is a different number from one transistor part number to the next, but transistors with the same part number have β values within a narrow range of each other.?

Should be:
?Current gain is a physical property of transistors. You can find the maximum and minimum values of β for a transistor part number in the manufacturers? published data sheets, however, you can determine the β of a particular transistor more accurately by experimenting.?
09/23/2013
110 Error in Text
Project 3.1:

The objective of this project is to find β of a particular transistor by setting several values of base current and measuring the corresponding values of collector current. Next, you divide the values of collector current by the values of the base current to determine β. The value of β will be almost the same for all the measured values of current. This demonstrates that β is a constant for a transistor.

Should be:
The objective of this project is to find β of a particular transistor by setting several values of base current and measuring the corresponding values of collector current. Next, you divide the values of collector current by the values of the base current to determine β. The value of β will be almost the same for all the measured values of current. This demonstrates the operation of a transistor in its linear region of operation, wherein β is almost constant.
10/09/2013
120 Error in Text
Project 3.2:

Your data will probably have slightly different values but should indicate that IC stays constant for values of VC of 0.2 and below, whereas IB continues to rise. In this region, the transistor is fully ON (saturated) and IC can?t increase further. This agrees with the data sheet published by Fairchild Semiconductor for the 2N3904 transistor, which indicates that the transistor saturates at VC = 0.2 volts.

Should be:
Your data will probably have slightly different values than shown here but should indicate that IC stays constant for values of VC of 0.2 and below, whereas IB continues to rise. In this region of values the transistor is fully ON (saturated) and IC can?t increase further. This demonstrates that the current gain is not constant for a saturated transistor.
10/9/2013
179 Error in Text, Problem 38, Answer C
Currently reads: ?Approximately ?4.2 V on the graph.?
Should read: ?Approximately ?4.5 V on the graph.?
09/23/2013
180 Error in Text, Problem 41
Currently reads: ?you can see that a cutoff value of ?4.2 volts is required.?
Should read: ?you can see that a cutoff value of ?4.5 volts is required.?
09/23/2013
187 Error in Text
Currently reads: ?The sine wave shows how the voltage moves from 0 volts to its peak voltage, and back down through 0, its negative peak voltage, at 60 cycles per second, or 60 Hertz (Hz).?
Should read: ?The sine wave shows how the voltage moves from 0 volts to its peak voltage, and back down through 0 volts to its negative peak voltage, then back to 0 volts at 60 cycles per second, or 60 Hertz (Hz).?
09/23/2013
209 Error in Text

Currently reads: 56.6 Vrms
Should read: 56.6 mVrms
09/23/2013
282 Error in Text
Currently reads: ?Notice the extra data points shown in the graph near the minimum Vout. These extra data points help you to determine the frequency at which the minimum Vout occurs. In this graph, the minimum Vout occurs at a frequency of 505 kHz, which is close to the calculated resonance frequency of 503 kHz for this circuit.?
Should read: You may want to take extra data points at frequencies near the minimum Vout. to help you determine the precise frequency at which the minimum Vout occurs. When extra data points are added to this graph, for example, the minimum Vout occurs at a frequency of 505 kHz, which is close to the calculated resonance frequency of 503 kHz for this circuit.
09/23/2013
303 Error in Text
Currently reads: ?a bandwidth of 80 kQ.?
Should read: ?a bandwidth of 80 kHz.?
09/23/2013
325 Error in Text
In problem 6, the following sentence should be deleted: ?Therefore, β is the slope of the line shown in the graph.?
09/23/2013
327 Error in Text
Problem 7:

Currently reads: ?In region Z of the graph shown in Figure 8-2, β (that is, the slope of the graph) is constant.?
Should read: ?In region Z of the graph shown in Figure 8-2, β is constant (at a given temperature).?
09/23/2013
369 Error in Text
Problem 42:

Currently reads: ?recognizing that VRS = VGS?
Should read: ?recognizing that VRS = |VGS|?
09/23/2013
403 Error in Text
Problem 40:

Currently reads: ?Assume that fr is equal to 1 kHz and that Xc equals 160 ohms?
Should read: ?Assume that fr is equal to 1 kHz and that XCB equals 160 ohms?
09/23/2013
436 Error in Text
Problem 1:

Currently reads: ?it induces an alternating current and a corresponding AC voltage in the second (or secondary) coil?
Should read: ?it induces an AC voltage in the second (or secondary) coil?
09/23/2013
437 Error in Text
Problem 1, Answer C:

Currently reads: ?An alternating current is induced in the secondary coil, which produces an AC voltage between the terminals of the secondary coil.?
Should read: ?An AC voltage of the same frequency is induced in the secondary coil.?
09/23/2013
446 Error in Text
Problem 13, Answer D:

Currently reads: Pout = VinIout = 24 ? 0.5 = 12 watts (same as the power in)
Should read: Pout = VoutIout = 24 ? 0.5 = 12 watts (same as the power in)
09/23/2013
494 Error in Text
09/23/2013
494 Error in Text