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Photonics, Volume 1: Fundamentals of Photonics and Physics

ISBN: 978-1-118-22553-0
472 pages
February 2015
Photonics, Volume 1: Fundamentals of Photonics and Physics (1118225538) cover image

Description

Covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonics.

This volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Polarization States; Quantum Electrodynamics; Quantum Information and Computing; Quantum Optics; Resonance Energy Transfer; Surface Optics; Ultrafast Pulse Phenomena.

  • Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics
  • Emphasizes processes and applications that specifically exploit photon attributes of light
  • Deals with the rapidly advancing area of modern optics
  • Chapters are written by top scientists in their field

Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.
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Table of Contents

 

List of Contributors xi

Preface xiii

1 A Photon in Perspective 1
David L. Andrews

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Foundations 3

1.3 Medium Issues 8

1.4 Photon Localization and Wavefunction 10

1.5 The Quantum Vacuum and Virtual Photons 12

1.6 Structured Light 15

1.7 Photon Number Fluctuations and Phase 18

1.8 The Reality of Photonics 20

Acknowledgments 20

References 20

2 Coherence and Statistical Optics 27
Mayukh Lahiri

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Classical Theory of Optical Coherence in the Space-Time Domain 28

2.3 Classical Theory of Optical Coherence in the Space-Frequency Domain 34

2.4 Cross-Spectrally Pure Optical Fields 38

2.5 Polarization Properties of Stochastic Beams 43

2.6 Remarks on Partially Coherent and Partially Polarized Beams 51

2.7 Basics of Quantum Theory of Optical Coherence 52

2.8 Concluding Remarks 55

Acknowledgments 56

References 56

3 Light Beams with Spatially Variable Polarization 61
Enrique J. Galvez

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Poincar´e Modes of Beams 62

3.3 Experimental Approaches 69

3.4 Polarization Singularities 70

3.5 Conclusion 73

Acknowledgments 73

References 73

4 Quantum Optics 77
Howard Carmichael

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Fundamentals 78

4.3 Open Systems: Inputs and Outputs 87

4.4 Photon Counting 95

4.5 Cavity and Circuit QED 105

References 111

5 Squeezed Light 121
A. I. Lvovsky

5.1 What is Squeezed Light? 121

5.2 Salient Features of Squeezed States 128

5.3 Detection 136

5.4 Preparation 141

5.5 Applications in Quantum Information 148

5.6 Applications in Quantum Metrology 154

5.7 Conclusion and Outlook 157

References 158

6 Electromagnetic Theory of Materials 165
Tom G. Mackay

6.1 Preamble 165

6.2 Macroscopic Viewpoint 166

6.3 Constitutive Dyadics 171

6.4 Linear Materials 178

6.5 Nonlinear Materials 194

6.6 Closing Remarks 198

References 199

7 Surface and Cavity Nanophotonics 205
Mohamed Babiker

7.1 Introduction 205

7.2 Basic Formalism 207

7.3 Dipole Emitter Near Edge 211

7.4 Quantum Correlations 215

7.5 Entanglement 217

7.6 Wedge Cavities 219

7.7 Conclusions 223

Acknowledgments 225

References 225

8 Quantum Electrodynamics 229
A. Salam

8.1 Introduction 229

8.2 Molecular QED: Principle of Minimal Electromagnetic Coupling 231

8.3 Multipolar Hamiltonian 235

8.4 One-Photon Absorption 241

8.5 Emission of Light: Spontaneous and Stimulated Processes 244

8.6 Linear Light-Scattering: The Kramers–Heisenberg Dispersion Formula 246

8.7 Chiroptical Effects 251

8.8 Two-Photon Absorption 255

8.9 Nonlinear Light-Scattering: Sum-Frequency and Harmonic Generation 258

8.10 Resonance Energy Transfer 261

8.11 van der Waals Dispersion Energy 264

8.12 Radiation-Induced Interparticle Forces 266

8.13 Summary and Outlook 269

References 271

9 Multiphoton Processes 279
Angus J. Bain

9.1 Introduction 279

9.2 Molecular Two-Photon Absorption: Basic Principles 282

9.3 Molecular Two-Photon Fluorescence 289

9.4 Applications and Future Prospects 307

9.5 Conclusions 309

Acknowledgments 311

References 311

10 Orbital Angular Momentum 321
Emma Wisniewski-Barker and Miles J. Padgett

10.1 Historical Introduction 321

10.2 Creating Beams with OAM 324

10.3 Micro-Manipulation through the Use of OAM 327

10.4 Beam Transformations 329

10.5 Measuring Beams with OAM 332

10.6 OAM in Classical Imaging 333

10.7 OAM in Nonlinear and Quantum Optics 333

10.8 Conclusions 335

References 335

11 Introduction to Helicity and Electromagnetic Duality Transformations in Optics 341
Ivan Fernandez-Corbaton and Gabriel Molina-Terriza

11.1 Introduction 341

11.2 Symmetries and Operators 342

11.3 Electromagnetic Duality 344

11.4 Optical Helicity and Electromagnetic Duality Symmetry 346

11.5 Duality Symmetry in Piecewise Homogeneous and Isotropic Media 347

11.6 Applications of the Framework 351

11.7 Conclusions 359

References 360

12 Slow and Fast Light 363
Robert W. Boyd and Zhimin Shi

12.1 Introduction 363

12.2 Mechanisms of Slow Light 364

12.3 Physics with Slow and Fast Light 367

12.4 Some Applications of Slow and Fast Light 374

12.5 Fundamental Limits on Slow Light 379

References 381

13 Attosecond Physics: Attosecond Streaking Spectroscopy of Atoms and Solids 387
Uwe Thumm Qing Liao Elisabeth M. Bothschafter Frederik S¨ußmann Matthias F. Kling and Reinhard Kienberger

13.1 Introduction 387

13.2 Time-Resolved Photoemission from Atoms 393

13.3 Streaked Photoemission from Solids 407

13.4 Attosecond Streaking from Nanostructures 425

13.5 Conclusions 432

Acknowledgments 434

References 434

Index 443 

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Author Information

David L. Andrews leads research on fundamental molecular photonics and energy transport, optomechanical forces and nonlinear optical phenomena. He has over 300 research papers and a dozen books to his name, including the widely adopted textbook Lasers in Chemistry. The current focus of his research group is on novel mechanisms for optical nanomanipulation and switching, and light-harvesting in nanostructured molecular systems. The group enjoys strong international links, particularly with groups in Canada, Lithuania, New Zealand and the United States. Andrews is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, and a Fellow of SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics.
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Reviews

"Andrew’s book is highly recommended as a window to the foundations of photonics, and the gain in understanding is amplified by careful study of the seminal references." (Optics and Photonics 2016)
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