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Risk Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health

ISBN: 978-1-118-22959-0
392 pages
March 2012
Risk Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health (1118229592) cover image

Description

This book covers system safety methods related to occupational health and safety. It argues for anticipating hazards, risk reduction strategies for hazards processes, and making sure workers' tasks correspond to human capabilities. To this end, the text provides pro-active methods for identifying hazards, assessing risk, analyzing hazards, using tools from system safety, conducting post-incident investigations, considering human errors, applying risk reduction strategies, and managing process safety. While emphasizing methods suitable for all countries, it includes references to U.S. military and Department of Energy documents, as well as a discussion of fault-tree construction.
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Part I: Background 1

1. Multidisciplinary Perspective 3

1.1 System Safety Contributions 3

1.2 Public Health Contributions 6

1.3 Educational Theory Contributions 7

Learning Exercises 9

Technical Terms 10

References 10

2. Key Terms and Concepts 13

2.1 Hazard 13

2.2 Risk 17

2.3 Risk Reduction 19

Learning Exercises 20

Technical Terms 22

References 22

3. Tools for Analysis and Synthesis 25

3.1 Using Models for Safety Analyses 25

3.2 Using Charting Methods 28

3.3 Summary of Part I 33

Learning Exercises 34

Technical Terms 35

References 36

Part II: Analysis Methods 37

4. Analyzing Jobs and Tasks 39

4.1 Basics of Job Hazard Analysis 39

4.2 Implementation 43

4.3 Example JHA 44

4.4 Hazard Analyses Similar to JHA 45

Learning Exercises 47

Technical Terms 48

References 48

5. Using Risk-Assessment Methods 49

5.1 Risk-Assessment Processes 49

5.2 Example Risk Assessment 58

Learning Exercises 62

Technical Terms 63

References 64

6. Analyzing Failure Modes 65

6.1 Rationale for FMEA 65

6.2 Basic FMEA Methodology 65

6.3 Beyond the Basics 68

Learning Exercises 68

Technical Terms 69

References 69

7. Constructing Fault Trees 71

7.1 Introduction to Fault Trees 71

7.2 Additional Fault Tree Tools 80

Learning Exercises 82

Technical Terms 83

References 84

8. Analyzing Fault Trees 85

8.1 Quantitative Analysis Based on Fault Trees 85

8.2 Identifying Cut Sets 91

8.3 Finding Common-Cause Failures 95

8.4 Summary of Part II 97

Learning Exercises 98

Technical Terms 99

References 99

Part III: Programmatic Methods for Managing Risk 101

9. Incident Investigation Programs 103

9.1 Closed-Loop Process 104

9.2 Policy Considerations 105

9.3 Investigative Processes 107

9.4 Practical Tools for Incident Investigators 110

9.5 Method for Modeling Harmful Incidents 118

Learning Exercises 120

Technical Terms 121

References 122

10. Human Error Reduction 125

10.1 Concepts of Errors 125

10.2 Comprehensive Classification System 128

10.3 Methods for Finding Countermeasures 130

Learning Exercises 131

Technical Terms 133

References 133

11. Risk-Reduction Strategies 135

11.1 Conceptualizing “Strategies” 135

11.2 The Nine Strategies 138

11.3 Priority for Applying Strategies 142

Learning Exercises 143

Technical Terms 148

References 148

12. Common Components of OSH Programs 149

12.1 OSH Program Aspirations 149

12.2 Training 150

12.3 Warnings 154

12.4 Safety Devices 157

12.5 Emergency Preparedness 159

12.6 Sanitation and Housekeeping 162

Learning Exercises 163

Technical Terms 165

References 166

13. Tools for Managing OSH Programs 169

13.1 Safety Culture 169

13.2 OSH Management System Approach 173

13.3 Ethical Policies for OSH 175

13.4 Summary of Part III 177

Learning Exercises 178

Technical Terms 179

Appendix: Example Code of Professional Conduct 179

References 180

Part IV: Risk Reduction for Energy Sources 183

14. Kinetic Energy Hazards 185

14.1 Energy in General 185

14.2 Background on Kinetic Energy 187

14.3 Mechanisms of Harming 190

14.4 Strategies and Tactics for Kinetic Energy 193

Learning Exercises 198

Technical Terms 199

References 199

15. Electric Energy Hazards 201

15.1 Electrical Energy as a Source of Hazard 201

15.2 Mechanisms of Harming 205

15.3 Strategies and Tactics for Electrical Energy 208

Learning Exercises 211

Technical Terms 212

References 213

16. Acoustic Energy and Vibration Hazards 215

16.1 Background on Noise and Vibration 215

16.2 Mechanisms of Harming 218

16.3 Strategies and Tactics for Noise and Vibration 221

Learning Exercises 225

Technical Terms 228

References 229

17. Thermal Hazards: Heat and Cold 231

17.1 Background on Thermal Hazards 231

17.2 Mechanisms of Harming 237

17.3 Strategies and Tactics for Thermal Hazards 238

Learning Exercises 243

Technical Terms 245

References 245

18. Fire Hazards 247

18.1 Fundamentals of Fire 247

18.2 Mechanisms of Harming 253

18.3 Strategies and Tactics for Fires 254

Learning Exercises 259

Technical Terms 260

References 261

19. Explosion Hazards 263

19.1 Background on Explosions 263

19.2 Mechanisms of Harming 264

19.3 Strategies and Tactics for Explosions 265

Learning Exercises 270

Technical Terms 271

References 271

20. Pressure Hazards 273

20.1 Overview of Pressure Hazards 273

20.2 Mechanisms of Harming 275

20.3 Strategies and Tactics for Pressure-Related Hazards 277

Learning Exercises 282

Technical Terms 284

References 284

21. Hazards of Electromagnetic Energies 285

21.1 Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Energy 285

21.2 Mechanisms of Harming 288

21.3 Strategies and Tactics for Electromagnetic Hazards 290

Learning Exercises 294

Technical Terms 295

References 295

22. Hazards of Severe Weather and Geological Events 297

22.1 Background 297

22.2 Mechanisms of Harming 299

22.3 Strategies and Tactics for Weather and Geological Events 299

22.4 Summary of Part IV 302

Learning Exercises 303

Technical Terms 303

Reference 303

Part V: Risk Reduction for Other Than Energy Sources 305

23. Workplace Conditions 307

23.1 Background 307

23.2 Floors 308

23.3 Stairways and Steps 315

23.4 Ramps 318

23.5 Confined Spaces 319

23.6 Dusty Air 321

Learning Exercises 322

Technical Terms 323

References 324

24. Chemical Substances 327

24.1 Major Categories of Chemicals Encountered at Work 327

24.2 Mechanisms of Harming 329

24.3 Strategies and Tactics for Workplace Chemicals 330

Learning Exercises 333

Technical Terms 333

References 334

25. Biological Agents 335

25.1 Plants 335

25.2 Pets 336

25.3 Livestock 336

25.4 Wild Animals 337

25.5 Mold 338

25.6 Pathogens 338

Learning Exercises 341

Technical Terms 342

References 342

26. Musculoskeletal Stressors 343

26.1 Background 343

26.2 Means by which Musculoskeletal Stressors can Harm 344

26.3 Strategies and Tactics for Musculoskeletal Stressors 347

Learning Exercises 351

Technical Terms 351

References 352

27. Violent Actions of People 353

27.1 Workplace Violence 353

27.2 Terrorist Attacks 357

27.3 Summary of Part V 358

Learning Exercises 359

Technical Terms 359

References 360

Index 361

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Author Information

ROGER C. JENSEN, JD, PhD, is Professor in the Safety, Health, and Industrial Hygiene Department of Montana Tech of The University of Montana. He is a Registered Professional Engineer, Certified Professional Ergonomist, Certified Safety Professional, and Registered Attorney. Dr. Jensen was honored with a Best Paper Award from Professional Safety: the Journal of the American Society of Safety Engineers.

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Reviews

“In this incredibly well-constructed and ambitious book, Professor Jensen says his initial motive for writing it was to provide a textbook for the next generation of occupational safety and health professionals to learn systematic methods that will help them throughout their careers.”  (RoSPA Occupational Safety & Health Journal, 1 September 2012)

 

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