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Industrial Gas Flaring Practices

ISBN: 978-1-118-23787-8
272 pages
March 2013
Industrial Gas Flaring Practices (1118237870) cover image
This volume tackles for the first time in decades the world's gas flaring practices, a difficult, hot-button issue of our time, whose consequences are only just beginning to be understood. The book examines both the technical and environmental aspects of gas flaring, highlights different flare designs, and presents real-world case studies illustrating the proper use of gas flaring and how to avoid polluting flaring events. The only guide of its kind, this remarkable book can help professionals in the oil and gas industry take an important step toward reducing worldwide CO2 emissions.
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Preface vii

About the author xi

1 Principles of Combustion 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Combustion Basics 3

1.3 Physical Gas Laws 9

1.4 Stoichiometric and Thermodynamic Considerations 11

1.5 Ignition 12

1.6 Flammability and Flammable Mixtures 14

1.7 Gas Mixtures 20

2 Overview of Flares and Gas Flaring Practices 23

2.1 General Description 23

2.2 Types of Flares 25

2.3 Flare System Components and Design Features 32

2.4 Flare Regulations 38

2.5 Flare Enforcement Actions 48

2.6 Major Suppliers 52

2.7 Flare Terminology 52

3 Overview of Disposal Systems and Relief Headers 59

3.1 Blowdown Systems 59

3.2 Disposal System Components 63

3.3 Quench Drum 70

3.4 Seals and the Seal Drum 71

3.5 Knockout Drums 73

4 Flare Types 75

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Hydrogen Assisted Flares 77

4.3 Steam Assisted Flares 92

4.4 Efficiency and Smoking Flares 97

5 Remote Sensing and Monitoring 103

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Remote Sensing Dial Technology 103

5.3 Experience 106

6 Practical Considerations and Emissions Calculations 113

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Sizing Considerations 114

6.3 General Permit Obligations 118

6.4 Monitoring System Requirements 122

6.5 Marama Guidelines for Calculating Flare Emissions 130

6.6 TCEQ New Source Review (NSR) Emission Calculations 136

6.7 U.S. EPA’s AP-42 145

6.8 Calculations Versus Measurement 152

7 Case Studies 157

7.1 Introduction 157

7.2 The Exxon Chalmette Refinery 158

7.3 The BP Texas City Refinery 170

7.4 Valero Tennessee Refinery 232

Appendix 241

Properties Data 241

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Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, PhD, is a consultant to industry, international lending institutions, and donor agencies on pollution prevention and responsible environmental care practices. With a career spanning more than thirty years, he is also the author, coauthor, or editor of more than 150 technical books and hundreds of state-of-the-art review and scientific articles. He received his BSc, MSc, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Clarkson College of Technology.

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“Written by a chemical engineer, the book offers a comprehensive look at this complex subject . . . As the consequences of gas flaring practices become more widely understood, this reference can help professionals in refineries and chemical plants to reduce CO2 emissions.”  (Chemical Engineering Progress, 21 May 2013)  

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