Microwave Filters for Communication Systems: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, 2nd EditionISBN: 9781118274347
896 pages
March 2018

Description
An indepth look at the stateoftheart in microwave filter design, implementation, and optimization
Thoroughly revised and expanded, this second edition of the popular reference addresses the many important advances that have taken place in the field since the publication of the first edition and includes new chapters on Multiband Filters, Tunable Filters and a chapter devoted to Practical Considerations and Examples.
One of the chief constraints in the evolution of wireless communication systems is the scarcity of the available frequency spectrum, thus making frequency spectrum a primary resource to be judiciously shared and optimally utilized. This fundamental limitation, along with atmospheric conditions and interference have long been drivers of intense research and development in the fields of signal processing and filter networks, the two technologies that govern the information capacity of a given frequency spectrum. Written by distinguished experts with a combined century of industrial and academic experience in the field, Microwave Filters for Communication Systems:
 Provides a coherent, accessible description of system requirements and constraints for microwave filters
 Covers fundamental considerations in the theory and design of microwave filters and the use of EM techniques to analyze and optimize filter structures
 Chapters on Multiband Filters and Tunable Filters address the new markets emerging for wireless communication systems and flexible satellite payloads and
 A chapter devoted to realworld examples and exercises that allow readers to test and finetune their grasp of the material covered in various chapters, in effect it provides the roadmap to develop a software laboratory, to analyze, design, and perform system level tradeoffs including EM based tolerance and sensitivity analysis for microwave filters and multiplexers for practical applications.
Microwave Filters for Communication Systems provides students and practitioners alike with a solid grounding in the theoretical underpinnings of practical microwave filter and its physical realization using stateoftheart EMbased techniques.
Table of Contents
1 Radio Frequency (RF) Filter Networks for Wireless Communications—The System Perspective 1
Part I Introduction to a Communication System, Radio Spectrum, and Information 1
1.1 Model of a Communication System 1
1.2 Radio Spectrum and its Utilization 6
1.3 Concept of Information 8
1.4 Communication Channel and Link Budgets 10
Part II Noise in a Communication Channel 15
1.5 Noise in Communication Systems 15
1.6 Modulation–Demodulation Schemes in a Communication System 32
1.7 Digital Transmission 39
Part III Impact of System Design on the Requirements of Filter Networks 50
1.8 Communication Channels in a Satellite System 50
1.9 RF Filters in Cellular Systems 62
1.10 UltraWideband (UWB)Wireless Communication 66
1.11 Impact of System Requirements on RF Filter Specifications 68
1.12 Impact of Satellite and Cellular Communications on Filter Technology 72
Summary 72
References 72
Appendix 1A 74
Intermodulation Distortion Summary 74
2 Fundamentals of Circuit Theory Approximation 75
2.1 Linear Systems 75
2.2 Classification of Systems 76
2.3 Evolution of Electrical Circuits: A Historical Perspective 77
2.4 Network Equation of Linear Systems in the Time Domain 78
2.5 Network Equation of Linear Systems in the FrequencyDomain Exponential Driving Function 80
2.6 SteadyState Response of Linear Systems to Sinusoidal Excitations 83
2.7 Circuit Theory Approximation 84
Summary 85
References 86
3 Characterization of Lossless Lowpass Prototype Filter Functions 87
3.1 The Ideal Filter 87
3.2 Characterization of Polynomial Functions for Doubly Terminated Lossless Lowpass Prototype Filter Networks 88
3.3 Characteristic Polynomials for Idealized Lowpass Prototype Networks 93
3.4 Lowpass Prototype Characteristics 95
3.5 Characteristic Polynomials versus Response Shapes 96
3.6 Classical Prototype Filters 98
3.7 Unified Design Chart (UDC) Relationships 108
3.8 Lowpass Prototype Circuit Configurations 109
3.9 Effect of Dissipation 113
3.10 Asymmetric Response Filters 115
Summary 118
References 119
Appendix 3A 121
Unified Design Charts 121
4 ComputerAided Synthesis of Characteristic Polynomials 129
4.1 Objective Function and Constraints for Symmetric Lowpass Prototype Filter Networks 129
4.2 Analytic Gradients of the Objective Function 131
4.3 Optimization Criteria for Classical Filters 134
4.4 Generation of Novel Classes of Filter Functions 136
4.5 Asymmetric Class of Filters 138
4.6 Linear Phase Filters 142
4.7 Critical Frequencies for Selected Filter Functions 143
Summary 144
References 144
Appendix 4A 145
Critical Frequencies for an EightPole Filter with Arbitrary Response 145
5 Analysis of Multiport Microwave Networks 147
5.1 Matrix Representation of TwoPort Networks 147
5.2 Cascade of Two Networks 160
5.3 Multiport Networks 167
5.4 Analysis of Multiport Networks 169
Summary 174
References 175
6 Synthesis of a General Class of the Chebyshev Filter Function 177
6.1 Polynomial Forms of the Transfer and Reflection Parameters S21(S) and S11(S) for a Twoport network 177
6.2 Alternating Pole Method for the Determination of the Denominator Polynomial E(S) 186
6.3 General Polynomial SynthesisMethods for Chebyshev Filter Functions 189
6.4 Predistorted Filter Characteristics 200
6.5 Transformation for Symmetric DualPassband Filters 208
Summary 210
References 211
Appendix 6A 212
Complex Terminating Impedances in Multiport Networks 212
6A.1 Change of Termination Impedance 213
References 213
7 Synthesis of NetworkCircuit Approach 215
7.1 Circuit Synthesis Approach 216
7.2 Lowpass Prototype Circuits for CoupledResonator Microwave Bandpass
7.3 Ladder Network Synthesis 229
7.4 Synthesis Example of an Asymmetric (4–2) Filter Network 235
Summary 244
References 245
8 Synthesis of Networks: Direct Coupling Matrix Synthesis Methods 247
8.1 The Coupling Matrix 247
8.2 Direct Synthesis of the Coupling Matrix 258
8.3 Coupling Matrix Reduction 261
8.4 Synthesis of the N + 2 Coupling Matrix 268
8.5 Even and OddMode Coupling Matrix Synthesis Technique: the Folded Lattice Array 282
Network 289
Summary 292
References 293
9 Reconfiguration of the Folded Coupling Matrix 295
9.1 Symmetric Realizations for DualMode Filters 295
9.2 Asymmetric Realizations for Symmetric Characteristics 300
9.3 "Pfitzenmaier" Configurations 301
9.4 Cascaded Quartets (CQs): Two Quartets in Cascade for Degrees Eight and Above 304
9.5 ParallelConnected TwoPort Networks 306
9.6 CuldeSac Configuration 311
Summary 321
References 321
10 Synthesis and Application of Extracted Pole and Trisection Elements 323
10.1 Extracted Pole Filter Synthesis 323
10.2 Synthesis of Bandstop Filters Using the Extracted Pole Technique 335
10.3 Trisections 343
10.4 Box Section and Extended Box Configurations 361
Summary 371
References 371
11 Microwave Resonators 373
11.1 Microwave Resonator Configurations 373
11.2 Calculation of Resonant Frequency 376
11.3 Resonator Unloaded Q Factor 383
11.4 Measurement of Loaded and Unloaded Q Factor 387
Summary 393
References 393
12 Waveguide and Coaxial Lowpass Filters 395
12.1 CommensurateLine Building Elements 395
12.2 Lowpass Prototype Transfer Polynomials 396
12.3 Synthesis and Realization of the Distributed Stepped Impedance Lowpass Filter 401
12.4 ShortStep Transformers 410
12.5 Synthesis and Realization of Mixed Lumped/Distributed Lowpass Filters 411
Summary 425
References 426
13 Waveguide Realization of Single and DualMode Resonator Filters 427
13.1 Synthesis Process 428
13.2 Design of the Filter Function 428
13.3 Realization and Analysis of the Microwave Filter Network 434
13.4 DualMode Filters 440
13.5 Coupling Sign Correction 442
13.6 DualMode Realizations for Some Typical Coupling Matrix Configurations 444
13.7 Phase and DirectCoupled Extracted Pole Filters 447
13.8 The "FullInductive" DualMode Filter 450
Summary 454
References 454
14 Design and Physical Realization of Coupled Resonator Filters 457
14.1 Circuit Models for Chebyshev Bandpass Filters 459
14.2 Calculation of Interresonator Coupling 463
14.3 Calculation of Input/Output Coupling 467
14.4 Design Example of Dielectric Resonator Filters Using the Coupling Matrix Model 468
14.5 Design Example of aWaveguide Iris Filter Using the Impedance InverterModel 475
14.6 Design Example of a Microstrip Filter Using the JAdmittance InverterModel 478
Summary 483
References 484
15 Advanced EMBased Design Techniques for Microwave Filters 485
15.1 EMBased Synthesis Techniques 485
15.2 EMBased Optimization Techniques 486
15.3 EMBased Advanced Design Techniques 496
Summary 513
References 514
16 Dielectric Resonator Filters 517
16.1 Resonant Frequency Calculation in Dielectric Resonators 517
16.2 Rigorous Analyses of Dielectric Resonators 521
16.3 Dielectric Resonator Filter Configurations 524
16.4 Design Considerations for Dielectric Resonator Filters 528
16.5 Other Dielectric Resonator Configurations 531
16.6 Cryogenic Dielectric Resonator Filters 534
16.7 Hybrid Dielectric/Superconductor Filters 536
Summary 538
References 539
17 Allpass Phase and Group Delay Equalizer Networks 541
17.1 Characteristics of Allpass Networks 541
17.2 LumpedElement Allpass Networks 543
17.3 Microwave Allpass Networks 547
17.4 Physical Realization of Allpass Networks 550
17.5 Synthesis of ReflectionType Allpass Networks 553
17.6 Practical Narrowband ReflectionType Allpass Networks 554
17.7 Optimization Criteria for Allpass Networks 557
17.8 Dissipation Loss 562
17.9 Equalization Tradeoffs 563
Summary 563
References 564
18 Multiplexer Theory and Design 565
18.1 Background 565
18.2 Multiplexer Configurations 567
18.3 RF Channelizers (Demultiplexers) 571
18.4 RF Combiners 577
18.5 Transmit–Receive Diplexers 596
Summary 603
References 604
19 ComputerAided Diagnosis and Tuning of Microwave Filters 607
19.1 Sequential Tuning of Coupled Resonator Filters 608
19.2 ComputerAided Tuning Based on Circuit Model Parameter Extraction 613
19.3 ComputerAided Tuning Based on Poles and Zeros of the Input Reflection Coefficient 617
19.4 TimeDomain Tuning 620
19.5 Filter Tuning Based on Fuzzy Logic Techniques 625
19.6 Automated Setups for Filter Tuning 635
Summary 637
References 638
20 HighPower Considerations in Microwave Filter Networks 641
20.1 Background 641
20.2 HighPower Requirements inWireless Systems 641
20.3 HighPower Amplifiers (HPAs) 643
20.4 Gas Discharge 643
20.5 Multipaction Breakdown 649
20.6 HighPower Bandpass Filters 660
20.7 Passive Intermodulation (PIM) Consideration for HighPower Equipment 668
Summary 672
Acknowledgment 673
References 673
21 Multiband Filters 677
21.1 Introduction 677
21.2 Approach I: Multiband Filters Realized by Having Transmission Zeros Inside the Passband of a Bandpass Filter 679
21.3 Approach II: Multiband Filters Employing Multimode Resonators 681
21.4 Approach III: Multiband Filters Using Parallel Connected Filters 698
21.5 Approach IV: Multiband Filter Implemented Using Notch Filters Connected in Cascade with aWideband Bandpass 699
21.6 Use of DualBand Filters in Diplexer and Multiplexer Applications 701
21.7 Synthesis of Multiband Filters 703
References 725
22 Tunable Filters 729
22.1 Introduction 729
22.2 Major Challenges in Realizing HighQ 3D Tunable Filters 731
22.3 Combline Tunable Filters 732
22.4 Tunable Dielectric Resonator Filters 750
22.5 Waveguide Tunable Filters 770
22.6 Filters with Tunable Bandwidth 774
Summary 776
References 777
23 Practical Considerations and Design Examples 783
Chandra M. Kudsia, Vicente E. Boria, and Santiago Cogollos
23.1 System Considerations for Filter Specifications in Communication Systems 783
23.2 Filter Synthesis Techniques and Topologies 794
23.3 Multiplexers 825
23.4 HighPower Considerations 837
23.5 Tolerance and Sensitivity Analysis in Filter Design 849
Summary 856
Acknowledgments 856
Appendix 23A 856
Thermal Expansion 856
References 857
A Impedance and Admittance Inverters 859
A.1 Filter Realization with Series Elements 859
A.2 Normalization of the Element Values 862
A.3 General Lowpass Prototype Case 863
A.3.1 Coupling Coefficient: Lowpass Prototype 864
A.4 Bandpass Prototype 864
A.4.1 Slope Parameter 865
A.4.2 Coupling Matrix Parameter M 865
A.4.3 Coupling Coefficient: Bandpass Prototype 866
A.4.4 Slope Parameter of TransmissionLine Resonators 866
A.4.5 Slope Parameter forWaveguide Resonators 867
A.4.6 Practical Impedance and Admittance Inverters 868
References 868
Index 869
Author Information
Richard J. Cameron, is the former Technical Director at COM DEV International. Visiting Professor at the University of Leeds (UK), and is a Fellow of IEE and IEEE.
Chandra M. Kudsia, PhD is President of Mantrix Inc., former Chief Scientist at COM DEV Space Group and an adjunct Professor at the University of Waterloo. He is a Fellow of IEEE, AIAA, CAE, EIC and IETE.
Raafat R. Mansour, PhD is a Professor at the University of Waterloo and a former Director of R&D at COM DEV International. He is a Fellow of IEEE, CAE and EIC.