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Magnesium Technology 2012

ISBN: 978-1-118-29121-4
850 pages
April 2012
Magnesium Technology 2012 (1118291212) cover image

Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Magnesium Committee of the Light Metals Division of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS)

Held during TMS 2012 Annual Meeting & Exhibition Orlando, Florida, USA
March 11-15,2012

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Preface xiii

About the Editor xv

About the Organizers xvii

Session Chairs xix

Reviewer Pool xxi

Magnesium Technology 2012

Plenary Session

Magnesium Alloy Development using Phase Equilibria Computation and Microstructure Validation 3
A. Luo, R. Mishra, B. Powell, and A. Sachdev

Atoms-to-Grains Corrosion Modeling for Magnesium Alloys 5
S. Chaudhuri, J. Xiao, and H. Kwak

Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel 11
Y. Hovanski, M. Santella, S. Jana, H. Yu, D. Field, T. Pan, and S. Pilli

Grain Evolution during High Temperature Necking of Magnesium Alloys 17
P. Krajewski

Production of Wide Shear-Rolled Magnesium Sheet for Part Forming 23
D. Randman, B. Davis, M. Alderman, G. Muralidharan, T. Muth, T. Watkins, and W. Peter

Primary Production

Carbothermal Production of Magnesium: CSIRO's MagSonic 8482; Process 31
L. Prentice, M. Nagle, T. Barton, S. Tassios, B. Kuan, P. Witt, and K. Constanti-Carey

MagSonic 8482; Carbothermal Technology Compared with the Electrolytic and Pidgeon Processes 37
L. Prentice, and N. Haque

Scaling-Up Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Technology for Magnesium Production 43
S. Pati, A. Powell, S. Tucker, and S. Derezinski

Fluid Bed Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride 49
K. Adham, C. Lee, and K. O'Keefe

Demonstration of Solar-Pumped Laser-Induced Magnesium Production from Magnesium Oxide 55
Y. Takashi, O. Tomomasa, D. Thanh Hung, K. Hiroki, N. Junichi, and O. Kouta

Molten Salt Electrolysis of MgCl2 in a Cell with Rapid Chlorine Removal Feature 59
G. Demirci, and I. Karakaya

Preparation of Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy from Magnesium Oxide in RECI3- LiF-MgF2 Electrolyte by Molten Salts Electrolysis Method 63
S. Yang, F. Yang, X. Hu, Z. Wang, Z. Shi, B. Gao, L. Wu, and M. Li

Experimental Study on Magnesium Extracted from Ascharite Mineral by Aluminium 67
P. Jianping, W. Xiaolei, F. Naixiang, Z. Shigang, and D. Yuezhong

Electrochemical Investigation on Chlorine and Electrolyte Intercalation into Graphite Anodes during Magnesium Electrolysis Process 71
B. Li, J. Lou, M. Y an, and J. Yu

Optimization of Preparation for MgO by Calcination from Basic Magnesium Carbonate using Response Surface Methodology 75
B. Zhang, J. Peng, L. Zhang, and S. Ju

Deformation Mechanisms

An Elasto-Plastic Micromechanical Method for Twin Driven Plasticity 83
L. Capolungo, P. Juan, and S. Berbenni

Anomalous Twin Bands in AZ31 Mg Sheet Bending 87
J. Baird, B. Li, S. Yazdan Parast, S. Horstemeyer, H. El Kadiri, P. Wang, and M. Horstemeyer

Formation of Nano-Scale Twins and Low Angle Grain Boundaries during Fracture of Fine Grained Magnesium Alloys 93
A. Singh, H. Somekawa, and T. Mukai

Tensile and Creep Deformation Mechanisms in Rolled AZ31 99
Z Chen, C. Boehlert, I. Gutiérrez-Urrutia, J. Llorca, and M.T. Pérez-Prado

Structural Origin of Reversible Twinning, Non-Schmid Effect, Incoherent Twin Boundaries and Texture of Hexagonal Close-Packed Metals 105
B. Li, X. Zhang, H. El Kadiri, S. Mathaudhu, and Q. Ma

Length Changes in Extruded Magnesium Alloy Bars Under Large Strain Free-End Torsion 111
H. Wang, P. Wu, and K. Neale

Nano-Indentation Studies of Twinned Magnesium Single Crystals 117
F. Hiura, R. Mishra, M. Lukitsch, and M. Niewczas

Non-Basal Textures in Magnesium Alloy Strips by Extrusion-Machining 121
D. Sagapuram, M. Efe, W. Moscoso, S. Chandrasekar, and K. Trumble

The Elastic-Plastic Transition in Magnesium Alloys 127
K. Yang, and C. Caceres

Casting and Solidification

Twin Roll Casting of Thin AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Strip with Uniform Microstructure and Chemistry 135
I. Bayandorian, I. Stone, Y. Huang, and Z. Fan

Mathematical Modeling of the Twin Roll Casting Process for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy - Effect of Set-Back Distance 141
A. Hadadzadeh, M. Wells, and E. Essadiqi

Intermetallic Phase Formation and Growth in the Mg-Y System 145
K. Bermudez, S. Brennan, and Y. Sohn

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Pressure Die Cast AM50 Magnesium Alloy Containing Ce 149
F. Mert, A. Özdemir, K. Kainer, and N. Hort

Melt Conditioned DC (MC-DC) Casting of Magnesium Alloys 155
Y. Zuo, Z. Fan, B. Jiang, and Y. Zhang

Effect of the Solidification Rate on Microstructure of Cast Mg Alloys at Low Superheat 161
G Poole, N. Rimkus, A. Murphy, P. Boehmcke, and N. El-Kaddah

Impact and Energy Dissipation Characteristics of Squeeze and Die Cast Magnesium Alloy AM60 165
S. DiCecco, H. Hu, and W. Altenhof

Sliding Wear Behavior of Squeeze Cast Magnesium Composite AM60-9% (Al2O3)f 169
A. Banerji, H. Hu, and A. Alpas

Solidification Studies of Mg-Al Binary Alloys 175
M. Paliwal, Y. Kang, E. Essadiqi, and I. Jung

Alloy and Microstructural Design

Age Hardening Behavior of Mg-l.2Sn-l.7Zn Alloy Containing Al 181
T. Sasaki, T. Ohkubo, and K. Hono

Effect of Nano-Alumina and Copper Micron Size Particulates on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of
Magnesium Alloy AZ31 187
B. Nguyen, K. Tun, and M. Gupta

Evaluating the Effect of Pre-Ageing Deformation on ß' Precipitate Size and Distribution in Mg-Zn(-Y) Alloys 191
J. Rosalie, H. Somekawa, A. Singh, and T. Mukai

Effect of Zinc Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Extruded Mg-Zn-Y-La Alloys with LPSO Phase 197
J. Kim, and Y. Kawamura

Effect of Ca Addition on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of AZ51/1.5 A12O3 Magnesium Nanocomposite 201
M. Ershadul Alam, R. Ara Rima, A. Salem Hamouda, Q. Bau Nguyen, and M. Gupta

Effect of Zn Concentration and Grain Size on Prismatic Slip in Mg-Zn Binary Alloys 207
N. Stanford, and M. Barnett

Effects of Ca on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ZA62 Alloys 213
J. You, W. Zhang, K. Qiu, and Y. Ren

Mechanical Properties and High-temperature Oxidation Behavior of Mg-Al-Zn-Ca-Y Magnesium Alloys 217
Y. Kim, B. You, M. Shim, and N. Kim

Effects of Si on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-5Sn-2Sr Alloy 221
J. You, S. Hao, K. Qiu, and Y. Ren

Corrosion and Coating

"Electroless" E-Coating for Mg Alloys 229
G. Song

The Influence of Galvanic Current on Cerium-Based Conversion Coatings on Mg, AI, and Galvanized Steel Couples 235
S. Maddela, M. O'Keefe, and Y. Wang

Effect of Sn4+ Additives on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Anodic Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Alkaline Solution 241
S. Salman, K. Kur oda, N. Saito, and M. Okido

Effect of Thickness on the Morphology and Corrosion Behavior of Cerium-Based Conversion Coatings on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy 247
C. Castaño, S. Maddela, M. O'Keefe, and Y. Wang

Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of As-Cast and Extruded MGIOGD Alloy for Biomedical Application 253
P. Maier, S. Müller, H. Dieringa, and N. Hort

Corrosion Behavior of Various Steels by AZ31 Magnesium Melt 261
C. Tang, M. Van Ende, and I. Jung

Corrosion of Ultrasonic Spot Welded Joints of Magnesium to Steel 265
T. Pan, and M. Santella

Effect of Some Microstructural Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium Alloys 271
Y. Hu, J. Kish, J. McDermid, and W. Zheng

Influence of Aluminum Content on Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Alloys Containing Copper and Zinc 277
H. Kawabata, N. Nishino, Y. Genma, and T. Seguchi

High Temperature Processing and Properties

Effect of Rolling Temperature on the AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Microstructure 283
L. Catorceno, and A. Padilha

Hot Formability Curves for Four AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheets Obtained by the Pneumatic Stretching Test 289
F. Abu-Far ha, R. Ver ma, and L. Hector

Texture Evolution during Hot Deformation Processing of Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al Alloy 295
C. Dharmendra, K. Rao, Y. Prasad, N. Hort, and K. Kainer

The Effects of Strain and Stress State in Hot Forming of Mg AZ31 Sheet 301
A. Carpenter, P. Sherek, L. Hector, P. Krajewski, J. Carter, E. Taleff, and J. Lasceski

Effect of Strain Rate on Dynamic Recrystallization in a Magnesium Alloy under Compression at High Temperature 307
Q. Ma, B. Li, A. Oppedal, W. Whittington, S. Horstemeyer, E. Marin, H. El Kadiri, P. Wang, and M. Horstemeyer

Effect of Strain Rate on the Kinetics of Hot Deformation of AZ31 with Different Initial Texture 311
M. Sanjari, A. Farzadfar, A. Nabavi, E. Essadiqi, I. Jung, and S. Yue

Precipitation Behaviour of Micro-Alloyed Mg-Al-Ca Alloys during Heat Treatment and Hot Compression 317
J. Su, S. Kaboli, A. Kabir, P. Vo, 1. Jung, and S. Yue

Diffusion Couple Investigation of the Mg-Zn System 323
S. Brennan, K. Bermudez, N. Kulkarni, and Y. Sohn

Biaxial Deformation Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy at High Temperatures 329
Y. Daisuke, M. Noda, and K. Funami

Processing-Microstructure-Property Relationships I

Microstructure Modeling of Magnesium Alloys for Engineering Property Prediction 335
E. Barker, D. Li, X. Sun, and M. Khaleel

Microstructure Modification and Deformation Behavior of Fine-Grained AZ61 Sheet Produced by Thixomolding and Thermomechanical Processing (TTMP) 339
T. Berman, W. Donlon, V. Miller, J. Huang, R. Decker, T. Pollock, and J. Jones

Development of High Strength and Toughness Magnesium Alloy by Grain Boundary Control 345
H. Somekawa, A. Singh, T. Inoue, and T. Mukai

Effects of Direct Extrusion Process on Microstructure, Texture Evolution and Yield Strength of Magnesium Alloy AZ31 349
S. Huang, M. Li, J. Allison, S. Zhang, D. Li, and Y. Peng

Comparison of Tensile Properties and Crystallographic Texture of Three Magnesium Alloy Sheets 355
J. Min, Y. Cao, J. Carter, and R. Verma

Strain Hardening of ZK60 Magnesium Alloys 361
J. Cho, S. Kang, and S. Han

Strain-Rate Effects of Sand-Cast and Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys under Compressive Loading 365
J. Weiler, and J. Wood

Mechanical Properties of Newly Developed Mg-Alloys AMX602 AND AZXE7111 under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading 371
J. Shen, K. Kondoh, T. Jones, S. Mathaudhu, L. Kecskes, and Q. Wei

Phase Field Modeling of Betal Precipitation in WE54 Alloy 377
Y. Gao, H. Liu, R. Shi, Z. Xu, J. Nie, Y. Wang, and N. Zhou

Advanced Processing and Joining

Microstructure and Creep Properties of MEZ Magnesium Alloy Processed by Thixocasting 385
E. Morales Garza, H. Dieringa, N. Hort, and K. Kainer

The Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Thixomolded AZ91 Magnesium Alloy 391
B. Mansoor, R. Decker, S. Kulkarni, S. LeBeau, and M. Khraisheh

Effect of Weld Structure on Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Spot Welding in Magnesium AZ31 Alloy 397
H. Rao, and J. Jordon

Effect of Corrosion on the Tensile Properties of Friction-Stir Welded AZ31B Sheet 403
J. Thuss, J. Kish, and J. McDermid

On the Effect of Ti2AlC on the Formation of Thermally Stable Mg Nano Grains 409
B. Anasori, and M. Barsoum

Experimental Investigations into the Deformation Behavior of Thixo-Molded Mg AZ61L Sheet Alloy 413
M. Koc, O. Cora, R. Snell, R. Dekker, and J. Huang

Effects of High Temperature Shot Peening on Surface Characteristics and Fatigue Properties of Forged AZ31 Magnesium Alloys 419
Y. Ichihara, M. Noda, and K. Funami

Solid Solution Hardening Effect of Aluminum on the Creep Deformation of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy 423
F. Kabirian, and R. Mahmoudi

Processing-Microstructure-Property Relationships II

Enhancement of Strength and Ductility of Mg96Zn2Y2 Rolled Sheet by Controlling Structure and Plastic Deformation 429
M. Noda, Y. Kawamura, H. Sakurai, and K. Funami

Microstructural Characteristics of High Rate Plastic Deformation in Elektron WE43 Magnesium Alloys 433
J. Hamilton, S. Brennan, Y. Sohn, B. Davis, R. DeLorme, and K. Cho

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of As-Extruded Mg-Sn-Al-Zn Alloys 439
S. Park, Y. Kim, C. Yim, H. Kim, and B. You

Tensile Properties of Three Preform-Annealed Magnesium Alloy Sheets 443
J. Min, J. Carter, and R. Verma

The Role of Intermetallics on Creep Behaviour of Extruded Magnesium Alloys 449
M. Fletcher, L. Bichler, and D. Sediako

High Performance Mg-System Alloys for Weight Saving Applications: First Year Results from the GREEN METALLURGY EU Project 455
F. D'Err ico, G. G arces Plaza, M. Hof er, and S. Kim

Effect of Extrusion Conditions on Microstructure and Texture of Mg-1% Mn and Mg-1% Mn-1.6% Sr Alloys 461
H. Borkar, andM. Pekguleryuz

Microstructural Characterization of Homogenised and Aged Mg-Gd-Nd Alloys 465
S. Khawaled, M. Bamberger, and A. Katsman

On the Deformed Microstructure of Rolled Mg-2.9Y 469
A. Farzadfar, M. Sanjari, I. Jung, E. Essadiqi, and S. Yue

Energy and Biomedical / Primary Production

In-Vitro Corrosion Studies of Bioabsorbable Magnesium Alloys 477
P. Gill, and N. Munroe

High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions for the Grid Balancing 483
F. D'Errico, and A. Screnci

Reaction Sintering of Mg2Si Thermoelectric Materials by Microwave Irradiation 489
S. Zhou, C. Bai, and C. Fu

Charge-Discharge Mechanism of MgC Powders and Mg-Li Alloy Thin Film Materials 493
Y. Chen, F. Hung, T. Lui, ft Xiao, Y. Tseng, and C. Wang

Control of Yttrium Diffusion Out of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia During SOM Electrolysis for Magnesium Production 499
E. Gratz, S. Pati, J. Milshtein, A. Powell, and U. Pal

Study on the Thermodynamic and Experimental Carbothermic Reduction of Garnierite 505
T. Qu, Y. Tian, B. Yang, B. Xu, D. Liu, and Y. Dai

Mechanism of Carbothermic Reduction of Magnesia and Reverse Reaction 511
Y. Tian, T Qu, B. Yang, H. Liu, C. Yang, and Y. Dai

Poster Session

Combination of Cooling Curve and Micro-Chemical Phase Analysis of Rapidly Quenched Magnesium AM60B Alloy 519
P. Marchwica, J. Sokolowski, A. Gesing, J. Jekl, C. Blawert, and R. Berkmortel

Effects of Friction Stir Process on the Tensile Properties of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy at Room Temperature to200°C 525
H. Chen, T Lui, L. Chen, and F. Hung

Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes 531
X. Guan, P. Zink, and U. Pal

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-5Sn-5Zn-xCa Alloys 537
K. Qiu, B. Liu, J. You, and Y. Ren

Phase Dissolution of Y-Mg17Al12 during Homogenization of As-Cast AZ80 Magnesium Alloy and Its Effect on Room Temperature Mechanical Properties 543
R. Kulkarni, N. Prabhu, P. Hodgson, and B. Kashyap

Precipitation Formation and Grain Refinement of Mg-Al-Sn Alloy during Hot Deformation 549
A. Kabir, J. Su, P. Vo, I. Jung, and S. Yue

The Effect of Precipitation on the Mechanical Properties of Extruded AZ80 555
R. Liu, J. Wang, andD. Yin

Influence of Section Thickness on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Squeeze Cast Magnesium Alloy AM60 561
X. Zhang, M. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Hu

Author Index 565

Subject Index 569

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