Ebook
Introduction to Polymer RheologyISBN: 9781118304945
March 2012

Designed for practicing scientists and engineers interested in polymer rheology science, education, consulting, or research and development, Introduction to Polymer Rheology is a comprehensive yet accessible guide to the study of the deformation and flow of matter under applied stress. Often considered a complicated topic for beginners, the book makes grasping the fundamentals of polymer rheology easy by presenting information in an approachable way and limiting the use of complex mathematics. By doing so, this introductory overview provides readers with easy access to the key concepts underlying the flow behavior of polymer melts, solutions, and suspensions. Incorporating sample problems that are worked through and explained on the page, as well as numerous practice problems to gauge learning comprehension, the book prepares new students and practitioners for moving on to more advanced concepts.
Comprising twelve chapters, the book covers stress, velocity and rate of deformation, the relationship between stress and rate of deformation (Newtonian fluid), generalized Newtonian fluids, normal stresses and elastic behavior, experimental methods, small and large strain, the molecular origins of rheological behavior, elementary polymer processing concepts, quality control in rheology, and the flow of modified polymers and those with supermolecular structure.
The essential reference for accurately interpreting polymer rheology data, Introduction to Polymer Rheology provides readers with an elementary understanding of the key issues and modern approaches to resolving problems in the field.
An Instructor’s Guide with answers to select problems in the text, 60 new problems with full solutions, hints for effective presentation of the material in the text, and an errata listing is available for professors using the book as a course textbook.A. Polymers and the importance of rheology
B. Rheology in its simplest form
Problems
Suggested references, with commentary
2. STRESS
A. Stress and pressure
B. Organization of the stress components
C. Coping with subscripts
D. Typical stress tensors
Appendix 21: Compilation of equations of motion (ssc)
Appendix 22: Equations of motion—curvilinear quick list (ssc)
Problems
References
3. VELOCITY, VELOCITY GRADIENT AND RATE OF DEFORMATION
A. Why velocity is simpler than location—Speedometers vs. GPS
B. Velocity gradients
C. Rate of deformation
Appendix 31: Components of the rateofdeformation tensor
Appendix 32: Components of the continuity equation
Appendix 33: Nomenclature and sign conventions used in popular rheology texts
Problems
References
4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS AND RATE OF DEFORMATION: THE NEWTONIAN FLUID
A Material idealizations in rheology
B. The Newtonian fluid
Problems
References
5. GENERALIZED NEWTONIAN FLUIDS — A SMALL BUT IMPORTANT STEP TOWARD A DESCRIPTION OF REAL BEHAVIOR FOR POLYMERS
A. Reasons for inventing generalized Newtonian fluids — behavior of polymer melts
B. Generalizing the GNF to three dimensions
C. Inventing relationships for viscosity vs. shear rate
D. Short primer on finding GNF parameters from data
E. Summary of GNF characteristics
Appendix 51: Fitting data with Excel
Problems
References
6. NORMAL STRESSES—ORDINARY BEHAVIOR FOR POLYMERS
A. Introduction
B. What are normal stresses
C. Origin of normal stresses in simple shear
D. The second normalstress difference
E. Normalstress coefficients and empirical findings
F. Transient rheological functions
D. Temperature effects and superposition of steadyflow data
Problems
References
7. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
A. Measurement of viscosity
B. Normal stresses from shearing flows
C. Extensional rheology
D. Specialized geometries
E. Flow visualization and other rheooptical methods
F. Micro and nano rheology
Appendix 71: Numerical derivatives
Appendix 72: Velocityprofile correction for nonNewtonian fluids
Appendix 73: Incorporation of slip into the velocityprofile correction— the Mooney correction
Appendix 74: Normal stresses using the coneandplate geometry
Appendix 75: Desktop rheooptical experiment
Problems
References
8. STRAIN, SMALL AND LARGE
A. Displacement
B. Infinitesimal strain
C. Hookean solids
D. Finite strain
E. The Lodge elastic fluid and variants
F. The Cauchy strain measure
G. Fixing up integral equations based on C and C1
Appendix 81: The relaxation function
Appendix 82: Constantrate extension of the LEF
Problems
References
9. MOLECULAR ORIGINS OF RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR
A. Description of polymer molecules
B. The Rouse chain—a limited description of polymer behavior
C. Other chainlike models
D. Dealing with entanglements
E. Summary of predictions of molecular theory
Problems
References
10. ELEMENTARY POLYMER PROCESSING CONCEPTS
A. Simple laboratory processing methods
B. Elementary extrusion concepts
C. A downstream process—spinning
D. Summary
Appendix 101: Densities of melts at elevated temperatures
Problems
References
11. QUALITYCONTROL RHEOLOGY
A. Examples of methods used by various industries
B. Test precision
Appendix 111: ASTM tests methods for rheological characterization
Problems
References
12. FLOW OF MODIFIED POLYMERS AND POLYMERS WITH SUPERMOLECULAR STRUCTURE
A. Polymers filled with particulates
B. Liquid crystallinity and rheology
C. Polymers with microphase separation in melts or solutions
D. Covalent crosslinking of polymers
Appendix 121: Van 't Hoff equation applied to gelation
Problems
References
ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS