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Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers

ISBN: 978-1-118-30499-0
664 pages
December 2012, Wiley-IEEE Press
Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers (1118304993) cover image

A practical guide for solving real-world circuit board problems

Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers arms engineers with the tools they need to test, evaluate, and solve circuit board problems. It explores a wide range of circuit analysis topics, supplementing the material with detailed circuit examples and extensive illustrations. The pros and cons of various methods of analysis, fundamental applications of electronic hardware, and issues in logic design are also thoroughly examined.

The author draws on more than twenty-five years of experience in Silicon Valley to present a plethora of troubleshooting techniques readers can use in real-life situations. Plus, he devotes an entire chapter to the design of a small CPU, including all critical elements—the complete machine instruction set, from its execution path to logic implementation and timing analysis, along with power decoupling, resets, and clock considerations. Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers covers:

  • Resistors, inductors, and capacitors as well as a variety of analytical methods
  • The elements of magnetism—an often overlooked topic in similar books
  • Time domain and frequency analyses of circuit behavior
  • Numerous electronics, from operational amplifiers to MOSFET transistors
  • Both basic and advanced logic design principles and techniques

This remarkable, highly practical book is a must-have resource for solid state circuit engineers, semiconductor designers and engineers, electric circuit testing engineers, and anyone dealing with everyday circuit analysis problems.  A solutions manual is available to instructors.  Please email ieeeproposals@wiley.com to request the solutions manual.  An errata sheet is available.

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Preface xvii

About the Author xix

1 From the Bottom Up: Voltages, Currents, and Electrical Components 1

1.1 An Introduction to Electric Charges and Atoms 1

1.2 Electric DC Voltage and Current Sources 3

1.3 Electric Components: Resistors, Inductors, and Capacitors 12

1.4 Ohm's Law, Power Delivered and Power Consumed 25

1.5 Capacitors 33

1.6 Inductors 44

1.7 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) 73

1.8 Summary 87

2 Alternating Current Circuits 98

2.1 AC Voltage and Current Sources, Root Mean Square Values (RMS), and Power 98

2.2 Sinusoidal Steady State: Time and Frequency Domains 111

2.3 Time Domain Equations: Frequency Domain Impedance and Phasors 123

2.4 Power in AC Circuits 136

2.5 Dependent Voltage and Current Sources 145

2.6 Summary of Key Points 149

3 Circuit Theorems and Methods of Circuit Analysis 155

3.1 Introduction 155

3.2 The Superposition Method 156

3.3 The Thévenin Method 165

3.4 Norton's Method 172

3.5 The Mesh Method of Analysis 179

3.6 The Nodal Method of Analysis 199

3.7 Which One Is the Best Method? 210

3.8 Using all the Methods 213

3.9 Summary and Conclusions 225

4 First- and Second-Order Circuits under Sinusoidal and Step Excitations 233

4.1 Introduction 233

4.2 The First-Order RC Low-Pass Filter (LPF) 235

4.3 The First-Order RC High-Pass Filter (HPF) 252

4.4 Second-Order Circuits 265

4.5 Series RLC Second-Order Circuit 266

4.6 Second-Order Circuit in Sinusoidal Steady State: Bode Plots 275

4.7 Drawing the Second-Order Bode Plots Using Asymptotic Approximations 278

4.8 Summary 279

5 The Operational Amplifi er as a Circuit Element 287

5.1 Introduction to the Operational Amplifier 287

5.2 Ideal and Real Op Amps 288

5.3 Brief Defi nition of Linear Amplifiers 290

5.4 Linear Applications of Op Amps 294

5.5 Op Amps Nonlinear Applications 331

5.6 Operational Amplifi ers Nonidealities 341

5.7 Op Amp Selection Criteria 343

5.8 Summary 347

6 Electronic Devices: Diodes, BJTs, and MOSFETs 354

6.1 Introduction to Electronic Devices 354

6.2 The Ideal Diode 355

6.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) 374

6.4 Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) 420

6.5 Summary 443

7 Combinational Circuits 456

7.1 Introduction to Digital Circuits 456

7.2 Binary Numbers: a Quick Introduction 456

7.3 Boolean Algebra 460

7.4 Minterms: Standard or Canonical Sum of Products (SOP) Form 467

7.5 Maxterms: Standard or Canonical Product of Sums (POS) Form 472

7.6 Karnaugh Maps and Design Examples 473

7.7 Product of Sums Simplifi cations 490

7.8 Don’t Care Conditions 491

7.9 Logic Gates: Electrical and Timing Characteristics 495

7.10 Summary 500

8 Digital Design Building Blocks and More Advanced Combinational Circuits 503

8.1 Combinational Circuits with More than One Output 503

8.2 Decoders and Encoders 510

8.3 Multiplexers and Demultiplexers (MUXes and DEMUXes) 519

8.4 Signed and Unsigned Binary Numbers 527

8.5 Arithmetic Circuits: Half-Adders (HA) and Full-Adders (FA) 533

8.6 Carry Look Ahead (CLA) or Fast Carry Generation 543

8.7 Some Short-Hand Notation for Large Logic Blocks 546

8.8 Summary 547

9 Sequential Logic and State Machines 550

9.1 Introduction 550

9.2 Latches and Flip-Flops (FF) 552

9.3 Timing Characteristics of Sequential Elements 571

9.4 Simple State Machines 574

9.5 Synchronous State Machines General Considerations 592

9.6 Summary 599

10 A Simple CPU Design 603

10.1 Our Simple CPU Instruction Set 603

10.2 Instruction Set Details: Register Transfer Language (RTL) 605

10.3 Building a Simple CPU: A Bottom-Up Approach 607

10.4 Data Path Architecture: Putting the Logic Blocks Together 615

10.5 The Simple CPU Controller 620

10.6 CPU Timing Requirements 626

10.7 Other System Pieces: Clock, Reset and Power Decoupling 628

10.8 Summary 633

Further Reading 633

Problems 633

Index 637

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ED LIPIANSKY has worked for Varian Associates, Tandem Computers, Sun Microsystems, Google, and Cisco Systems in Silicon Valley. He is the author or coauthor of six patents and has taught at the University of California, Berkeley and Santa Cruz Extensions. He lives with his family in the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California.

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Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

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